Author Topic: History Of Nobel Prizes  (Read 31064 times)

SHANDAL

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #20 on: November 07, 2012, 02:27:22 AM »

1925

Richard A. Zsigmondy

Germany, Austria

Colloid chemistry (ultramicroscope)



1926

Theodor Svedberg

Sweden

Disperse systems (ultracentrifuge)



1927

Heinrich O. Wieland

Germany

Constitution of bile acids



1928

Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus

Germany

Study of sterols and their relation with vitamins (vitamin D)



1929

Sir Arthur Harden
Hans von Euler-Chelpin

Great Britain
Sweden, Germany

Studied fermentation of sugars and enzymes



1930

Hans Fischer

Germany

Studied blood and plant pigments, synthesized hemin



1931

Friedrich Bergius
Karl Bosch

Germany
Germany

Developed chemical high-pressure processes



1932

Irving Langmuir

United States

Surface chemistry



1933

 

 

The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.



1934

Harold Clayton Urey

United States

Discovery of heavy hydrogen (deuterium)

SHANDAL

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #21 on: November 07, 2012, 02:28:53 AM »

1935

Frederic Joliot-Curie
Ir Šne Joliot-Curie

France
France

Syntheses of new radioactive elements (artificial radioactivity)



1936

Peter J. W. Debye

Netherlands, Germany

Studied dipole moments and the diffraction of X rays and electron beams by gases



1937

Walter N. Haworth
Paul Karrer

Great Britain
Switzerland

Studied carbohydrates and vitamin C
Studied carotenoids and flavins and vitamins A and B2



1938

Richard Kuhn

Germany

Studied carotenoids and vitamins



1939

Adolf F. J. Butenandt
Lavoslav Stjepan Ru ička

Germany
Switzerland

Studies on sexual hormones
Studied polymethylenes and higher terpenes



1940

 

 

The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section



1941

 

 

The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.



1942

 

 

The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.



1943

Georg de Hevesy

Hungary

Application of isotopes as indicators in the investigation of chemical processes



1944

Otto Hahn

Germany

Discovered nuclear fission of atoms



1945

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen

Finland

Discoveries in the area of agricultural and food chemistry, method of preservation of fodder

SHANDAL

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #22 on: November 07, 2012, 02:30:23 AM »

1946

James B. Sumner
John H. Northrop
Wendell M. Stanley

United States
United States
United States

Prepared enzymes and virus proteins in pure form
Crystallizability of enzymes



1947

Sir Robert Robinson

Great Britain

Studied alkaloids



1948

Arne W. K. Tiselius

Sweden

Analysis using electrophoresis and adsorption, discoveries concerning serum proteins



1949

William F. Giauque

United States

Contributions to chemical thermodynamics, properties at extremely low temperatures (adiabatic demagnetization)



1950

Kurt Alder
Otto P. H. Diels

Germany
Germany

Developed diene synthesis



1951

Edwin M. McMillan
Glenn T. Seaborg

United States
United States

Discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements



1952

Archer J. P. Martin
Richard L. M. Synge

Great Britain
Great Britain

Invented distribution chromatography



1953

Hermann Staudinger

Germany

Discoveries in the area of macromolecular chemistry



1954

Linus C. Pauling

United States

Studied the nature of the chemical bond (molecular structure of proteins)



1955

Vincent du Vigneaud

United States

Synthesized a polypeptide hormone

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #23 on: November 07, 2012, 02:31:37 AM »

1956

Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Nikolai N. Semenov

Great Britain
Soviet Union

Mechanisms of chemical reactions



1957

Sir Alexander R. Todd

Great Britain

Studied nucleotides and their coenzymes



1958

Frederick Sanger

Great Britain

Structure of proteins, especially insulin



1959

Jaroslav Heyrovsk

Czech Republic

Polarography



1960

Willard F. Libby

United States

Application of carbon 14 for age determinations (radiocarbon dating)



1961

Melvin Calvin

United States

Studied the assimilation of carbonic acid by plants (photosynthesis)



1962

John C. Kendrew
Max F. Perutz

Great Britain
Great Britain, Austria

Studied the structures of globulin proteins



1963

Giulio Natta
Karl Ziegler

Italy
Germany

Chemistry and technology of high polymers



1964

Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin

Great Britain

Structure determination of biologically important substances by means of X rays



1965

Robert B. Woodward

United States

Syntheses of natural products

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #24 on: November 07, 2012, 02:32:50 AM »

1966

Robert S. Mulliken

United States

Studied chemical bonds and the electron structure of molecules using the orbital method



1967

Manfred Eigen
Ronald G. W. Norrish
George Porter

Germany
Great Britain
Great Britain

Investigated extremely fast chemical reactions



1968

Lars Onsager

United States, Norway

Studied the thermodynamics of irreversible processes



1969

Derek H. R. Barton
Odd Hassel

Great Britain
Norway

Development of the concept of conformation



1970

Luis F. Leloir

Argentina

Discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates



1971

Gerhard Herzberg

Canada

Electron structure and geometry of molecules, particularly of free radicals (molecular spectroscopy)



1972

Christian B. Anfinsen
Stanford Moore
William H. Stein

United States
United States
United States

Studied ribonuclease (Anfinsen)
Studied the active center of ribonuclease (Moore & Stein)



1973

Ernst Otto Fischer
Geoffrey Wilkinson

Germany
Great Britain

Chemistry of metal-organic sandwich compounds



1974

Paul J. Flory

United States

Physical chemistry of macromolecules



1975

John Cornforth
Vladimir Prelog

Australia - Great Britain
Yugoslavia - Switzerland

Stereochemistry of enzyme catalysis reactions
Studied the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #25 on: November 07, 2012, 02:34:04 AM »

1976

William N. Lipscomb

United States

Structure of boranes



1977

Ilya Prigogine

Belgium

Contributions to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, particularly to the theory of dissipative structures



1978

Peter Mitchell

Great Britain

Studied biological energy transfer, development of the chemiosmotic theory



1979

Herbert C. Brown
Georg Wittig

United States
Germany

Development of (organic) boron and phosphorous compounds



1980

Paul Berg
Walter Gilbert
Frederick Sanger

United States
United States
Great Britain

Studied the biochemistry of nucleic acids, particularly hybrid DNA (technology of gene surgery) (Berg)
Determined base sequences in nucleic acids (Gilbert & Sanger)



1981

Kenichi Fukui
Roald Hoffmann

Japan
United States

Theories on the progress of chemical reactions (frontier orbital theory)



1982

Aaron Klug

South Africa

Developed crystallographic methods for the elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid protein complexes



1983

Henry Taube

Canada

Reaction mechanisms of electron transfer, especially with metal complexes



1984

Robert Bruce Merrifield

United States

Method for the preparation of peptides and proteins



1985

Herbert A. Hauptman
Jerome Karle

United States
United States

Developed direct methods for the determination of crystal structures

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #26 on: November 07, 2012, 02:35:27 AM »
1986

Dudley R. Herschbach
Yuan T. Lee
John C. Polanyi

United States
United States
Canada

Dynamics of chemical elementary processes



1987

Donald James Cram
Charles J. Pedersen
Jean-Marie Lehn

United States
United States
France

Development of molecules with structurally specific interaction of high selectivity



1988

Johann Deisenhofer
Robert Huber
Hartmut Michel

Germany
Germany
Germany

Determined the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center



1989

Thomas Robert Cech
Sidney Altman

United States
United States

Discovered the catalytic properties of ribonucleic acid (RNA)



1990

Elias James Corey

United States

Developed novel methods for the synthesis of complex natural compounds (retrosynthetic analysis)



1991

Richard R. Ernst

Switzerland

Developed high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)



1992

Rudolph A. Marcus

Canada - United States

Theories of electron transfer



1993

Kary B. Mullis
Michael Smith

United States
Great Britain - Canada

Invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Development of site specific mutagenesis



1994

George A. Olah

United States

Carbocations



1995

Paul Crutzen
Mario Molina
F. Sherwood Rowland

Netherlands
Mexico - United States
United States

Work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone



1996

Harold W. Kroto
Robert F. Curl, Jr.
Richard E. Smalley

Great Britain
United States
United States

Discovered fullerenes



1997

Paul Delos Boyer
John E. Walker
Jens C. Skou

United States
Great Britain
Denmark

Elucidated the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
 first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase
« Last Edit: November 07, 2012, 02:36:59 AM by SHANDAL »

SHANDAL

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #27 on: November 07, 2012, 02:38:30 AM »

1998

Walter Kohn
John A. Pople

United States
Great Britain

Development of the density-functional theory (Kohn)
Development of computational methods in quantum chemistry (GAUSSIAN computer programs) (Pope)



1999

Ahmed H. Zewail

Egypt - United States

Studied the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy



2000

Alan J. Heeger
Alan G. MacDiarmid
Hideki Shirakawa

United States
United States
Japan

Discovered and developed conductive polymers



2001

William S. Knowles
Ryoji Noyori
Karl Barry Sharpless

United States
Japan
United States


Work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions (Knowles & Noyori)
Work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions (Sharpless)



2002

John Bennett Fenn
Jokichi Takamine
Kurt W thrich

United States
Japan
Switzerland

Developed soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules (Fenn & Tanaka)
Developed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution (W thrich)



2003

Peter Agre
Roderick MacKinnon

United States
United States

Discovered water channels for transport of water in cell membranes
Performed structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels in cells



2004

Aaron Ciechanover
Avaram Hershko
Irwin Rose

Israel
Israel
United States

Discovered and elucidated the process of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation



2005

Yves Chauvin
Robert H. Grubbs
Richard R. Schrock

France
United States
United States

Developed the metathesis method of organic synthesis, allowing for advances in 'green' chemistry



2006

Roger D. Kornberg

United States

"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"



2007

Gerhard Ertl

Germany

"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"



2008

Shimomura Osamu
Martin Chalfie
Roger Y. Tsien

United States

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"



2009

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Thomas A. Steitz
Ada E. Yonath

United Kingdom
United States
Isreal

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"



2010

Ei-ichi Negishi
Akira Suzuki
Richard Heck

Japan
Japan
United States

"for the development of palladium-catalyzed cross coupling"



2011

Daniel Shechtman

Israel

"for the discovery of quasi-crystals"



2012

Robert Lefkowitz and Brian Kobilka

United States

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

SHANDAL

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #28 on: November 07, 2012, 06:01:29 AM »
Nobel Physics Prize Winners


1901

Wilhelm C. R ntgen

Germany

 

1902

Hendrik A. Lorentz
Pieter Zeeman

Netherlands
Netherlands

 

1903

Antoine Henri Becquerel
Pierre Curie
Marie Curie

France
France
Poland - France

 

1904

John W. Strutt

Great Britain

 

1905

Philipp E. A. von Lenard

Germany

 

1906

Sir Joseph J. Thomson

Great Britain

 

1907

Albert A. Michelson

United States

 

1908

Gabriel Lippmann

France

 

1909

Carl F. Braun
Guglielmo Marconi

Germany
Italy

 

1910

Johannes D. van der Waals

Netherlands

SHANDAL

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Re: History Of Nobel Prizes
« Reply #29 on: November 07, 2012, 06:03:19 AM »

1911

Wilhelm Wien

Germany

 

1912

Nils G. Dalen

Sweden

 

1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

Netherlands

 

1914

Max von Laue

Germany

 

1915

Sir William H. Bragg
Sir William L. Bragg

Great Britain
Great Britain

 

1916

 

 

 

1917

Charles G. Barkla

Great Britain

 

1918

Max K. E. L. Planck

Germany

 

1919

Johannes Stark

Germany

 

1920

Charles E. Guillaume

France

 

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