Author Topic: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers  (Read 40700 times)

GURSHARAN NATT

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Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #20 on: December 01, 2011, 07:29:58 PM »
 The Toghlak Dynasty

Ghias-Uddin Toghlak Ghias-Uddin Toghlak, a person of mature age who possessed considerble tact and judgement, was crowned king. He succesfully repelled repeated incursions of the Moghals and strengthened his western frontiers by building new forts and establishing garrisons on the Kabul borders. He reformed laws, encouraged commerce, patronized men of literary ability, and constructed public buildings. He was killed by the fall of a roof in Delhi in Feburary 1325, a reign of four years.


Muhammad Toghlak On the death of Ghias-Uddin Toghlak, his eldest son, Muhammad Toghlak, ascended the throne. He founded hospitals for the sick and established almshouses for the widows and destitute. He was versed in Persian and Arabic, in the sciences of physics, logic, astronomy, and mathematics. The first great event of his reign was a formidable irruption of the Moghals, who now aspired to conquer all of India. In 1327, Turmushrin Khan, a Moghal general, invaded the Punjab. The emperor convinced the Moghals to withdrew by offering an enormous sum of money. In 1337, Muhammad Toghlak embarked on conquering China, but his whole army fell victims and the conquisition thus failed. In 1341, the Punjab was invaded again by the Ghakkars, but they were defeated and expelled from the country. Muhammad contracted a fever and died in March 20th, 1352 after a reign of twenty-seven years.


Toghlak Dyanasty

Firoz Toghlak On the death of Muhammad Toghlak, his cousin Firoz ascended the throne on September 14th, 1351. In 1353 he had a splendid palace built on the banks of Sarsuti and founded a new city adjoing Delhi called Firozabad. In 1358 the Moghals invaded the Punjab as far as Depalpur, but the invaders eventually retired back to their own country. Firoz died on October 23rd, 1388 at the age of ninety, after reigning for thirty-eight years. He was a liberal prince, and was beloved alike by his soldiery and subjects.


Nasir-Uddin Muhammad Toghlak II Nasir-Uddin Muhammad ascended the throne in 1390. However, on February 19th, 1394, after a reign of six years and seven months, he died of a fever at Mahomedabad.

Mahmud Toghlak Mahmud, son of the late king, was raised to the throne. The kingdom was, however, distracted by dissensions among the nobles. The Ghakkars were in revolt in the Punjab, and Gujrat became and independent kingdom. The Punjab, however, was not lost to the emperor, for the governers remained firm in their allegiance to him. The army marched against the Ghakkars, who were defeated with great loss. However, another calamity befell the Indians, which was the invasion of Tymur Beg Gorkan.

GURSHARAN NATT

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Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #21 on: December 01, 2011, 07:30:29 PM »
 Invasion of Tymur

Tymur Crosses the Indus Having heard the intelligence of civil wars in India, Tymur, in 1396, despatched an army under his grandson. They crossed the Indus on September 12th, 1398, and advanced to Lahore. Tymur now proceeded along the river bank to the junction of the Chinab with the Ravi. The army crossed by a bridge of boats and encamped at the town of Talamba, which the soldiery plundered, with the inhabitants mercilessly massacred. He then crossed the Bias and marched to Bhitner, where he slew many thousands. Tymur then marched to Sarsuti, in which the inhabitants were completely butchered, and then went to Fatehabad. He then ravaged the provinces of Lahore and Multan, carrying fire and sword whever they went.


Tymur Proclaimed Emperor On January 12th, 1399, in the plains of Ferozabad, the veteran army of Tymur routed the Indians. On the following Friday, Tymur was proclaimed the emperor of India. In Delhi, the troops created utmost disorder as Hindu females had their property seized, the houses were put on fire, and a general massacre ensued. Tymur halted fifteen days at Delhi, carried architects and masons from Delhi to Samarkand to build a mosque, and then returned to his own country. After his departure, Delhi was in a state of anarchy. Eventually, Muhmud Toghlak returned and reigned for twenty years, before dying in February 1412.


Battles

GURSHARAN NATT

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« Reply #22 on: December 01, 2011, 07:31:00 PM »
The Dynasty of Syads

Syad Khizr Khan In 1416, the capitol was invaded, in the name of Tymur, by Khizr Khan, viceroy of Lahore, with an army of 60,000 hourses, and eventually ascended the throne. During his reign, the Punjab remained at peace. He died on May 20th, 1241, after a reign of seven years, and after recovering most of the provinces which had been lost to the empire.


Syad Mobarak Shah On the death of Khizr Khan, his son, Mobarak ascended the throne. He defeated Ali Shah, King of Kashmir, whom he made prisoner, and aspired to be the sovereign of the whole of India. In 1421, he captured Lahore, and then Jalandhar was reduced. In 1422, the Ghakkars revolted, and Mobarak laid seige to Lahore for six months, and he is able to reduce the revolt. In September 1427, Jasrat Ghakkar laid seige on Kalanaur, and the emperor sent reinforcements and induced a severe defeat on Jasrat. In 1429, the Punjab was invaded by the Moghals, headed by Amir Shekh Ali, govenor of Kabul. About 40,000 Hindus were massacred on this occasion, however, the Indians fought back, and the Moghals were either put to the sword or drowned in the attempt to cross the Jhelum. In 1435, Mobarak was murdered by conspirators while at a mosque. He reigned for thirteen years.


Battles

Syad Muhammad The son of Mobarak, Syad Muhammad, was installed on the throne of Delhi in 1435. In 1436, a serious insurrection broke out in Multan among the Afghans. About the same time Lahore was captured by Behlol Lodi, and he took possession of Depalpur and made himself master. In 1441, the king confirmed Behlol Lodi in the government of Lahore and Depalpur, and died of a natural death in 1445.

Syad Ala-Uddin Syad Ala-Uddin succeeded his father and took residence in Budaon, where he became distracted and giving himself up to various entertainments. The Punjab was in possession of Behlol Khan Lodi, and the authority of the king confined to the city of Delhi. Eventually, Behlol Lodi quietly entered the capital and was proclaimed king in 1450. King Ala-Uddin withdrew to Budaon, where he died in 1478, after reigned in Delhi for seven years.


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« Reply #23 on: December 01, 2011, 07:42:40 PM »
The Lodi Dynasty

Behlol Lodi The ancestors of Behlol were a commercial tribe of Afghans who carried on trade between India and Persia. Behlol governed the empire with a firm hand and re-incorporated the kingdom of Jaunpur with the dominions of Delh. In 1451, the king made a tour through the Punjab, visited Multan, where he re-organized an army. The king suffered from chronic disease and died in 1488, after a prosperous reign of thirty-eight years.


Sikandar Lodi On the death of Behlol, his son, Nizam Khan, ascended the throne, under the title of Sidandar Lodi. The king had high literary attainments, and among the works he compiled is the Farhang Sikandari. He was intolerant towards the Hindus and destroyed temples and built mosques in place of them. The shaving of beards and heads by barbers on occassions of Hindu pilgrimages was prohibited during his time. He died on December 14th, 1617 after a reign of twenty-eight years.


Ibrahim Lodi The son of Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi, ascended the throne. He caused his brother Jalal Khan to be imprisoned and put the death. He was known for acts of cruelty and was not liked. Dissatisfied with the court of Delhi, Doulat Khan Lodi, viceroy of the Punjab, urged Baber, the Moghal prince, a great-grandson of Tymur, to invade the Punjab. Accordingly, in 1526 Baber invaded Punjab and Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the dynasty, was slain on the field. The reign of Ibrahim Lodi had lasted twenty years, and the dynasty of the Lodis lasted from 1450 to 1526.



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« Reply #24 on: December 01, 2011, 07:43:11 PM »
The Moghal Dynasty

Zahiruddin Baber At the age of fifteen, Baber had conquered Samarkand, the capital of his ancestors. He made his first advance upon India in 1519 and reached Bhera in the Punjab. The fort of Birhala, with all its treasures, fell into the hands of the victor. The later part of the year witnessed another invasion by Baber, this time of Lahore. In 1520, he again marched into India and captured Sailkot and Syadpur, and massacred the inhabitants or carried them to slavery. In 1524, Baber advanced to Punjab and defeated the defending army in a great slaughter, and eventually marched into Lahore and ruled. Baber died in Agra on December 26th, 1530, having reigned thirty-eight years.


Humayun

Nasiruddin Humayun Humayun, who succeeded his father Baber, was an amiable and accomplished person. He made the science of astronomy his favorite object of study, and wrote works on nature. Humayun waged wars on the Hindu kings of Nothingelkhand, reduced Chena, and marched against Gujrat. In 1540, the emperor was discomfited by Sher Khan and was obliged to abandon his capital. He retreated to Lahore, and eventually fled to the desert, where his wife gave birth to Prince Akbar. Humayun eventually retreated to Sistan and gave up the idea of re-establishing the Moghal empire in India.



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« Reply #25 on: December 01, 2011, 07:43:46 PM »
The Sur Dynasty

Sher Shah Sur Sher Shah was the son of Hassan, of the tribe of Sur, a native of Roh in Peshawar. While the Emperor Humayun was engaged in Gujrat, Sher Khan reduced the whole of Behar and Bengal, and next year marched again Humayun. The battle which ensued in 1540 in Agra, and in which Humuyan was defeated, decided the fate of the Punjab for the time. Sher Shar reduced to subjection the rebellious Hindu states, and was a man of great military talents. Before he died, he extended the limits of the empire in every direction.


Salem Shah Sur On the death of Sher Shah, the officers of the army elected his younger son, Jalal Khan, more familiarly known as Salem Shah, to be their emperor. Heibat Khan, viceroy of Lahore, rebelled against Shah Sher, but the emperor marched to Lahore and gained a decesive victory. About the year 1548, Kamran Mirza joined the Ghakkars in the Punjab but eventually retreated. The king had a painful disorder of which he died in his palace at Gwalior in 1553, after a reign about nine years.

Muhammad Shah Sur Adili Muhammad Shah Adili, after killing Firoz, the son of Shah Sur, ascended the throne. Muhammad could not read or write, and generally neglected the affairs of the kingdom. His brother-in-law, Ibrahim Khan, raised a considerable army and took over the thrown.


Moghal Shah

Sekandar Shah Sur Having won over some of the leading chiefs of the western districts to his side, he assumed the royal title in the Punjab. He marched to Agra with the view of expelling Ibrahim Khan. A battled ensued in which the hosts of Ibrahim Khan were signally defeated, allowing the conqueror to take posession of both Agra and Delhi. Sekandar did not last too long, as Humayun, after his long exile, invaded India, and Sakander was compelled to retreat. He eventually died in Bengal, and the dynasty of the Sur Pathans became extinct.




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« Reply #26 on: December 01, 2011, 07:44:20 PM »
Jalaluddin Akber

Nasiruddin Humayun (2nd reign) In 1553, friends of Humayun wrote to him from Agra and Delhi inviting him to return and take posession of the country. Humayun marched from Kabul in December, 1554, and entered Lahore unopposed, and prepared to make further advance. He entered Machiwara and routed the Afghans. Humayun re-entered Delhi in July 1555, and ascended the throne, after an exile of fifteen years. However, only after one year, he died, on January 21st, 1556, by accidently slipping on a marble pavement.


Akber Ascends the Throne On hearing the news of the accident, Akber was installed on the throne, on February 15th, 1556. Akber, on ascending the throne, did not find his position quite secure, and led his army towards the hills to defeat the mountain tribes. Hemu, the active Hindu minister of Muhammad Shah, was defeated at Panipat on November 5th, 1556, and eventually murdered by Behram Khan, an officer of Akber. Akber also marched to Punjab to expell Sikandar Shah, who eventually retreated to the fort of Mankot, and subdued. A difference now arose between Behram Khan and the Emperor, and the former raised a revolt, but was eventually put in confinement and later assasinated in 1561. Akber, now 18 years of age, was left henceforth to rule alone.


Akber Ascends the Throne

Battles In 1563 an attempt was made on the king's life by Kutlegh Foulad, a slave, but Akber survived and the assassin was immediately put to death. In 1579, Muhammad Hakim Mirza made another attempt on Lahore, but the city was gallantly defended, and the emperor, on his return to the Indus, orderd the fort of Attock to be built. The Emperor then had an expedition to Kashmir and conquered it in 1586. In 1590, Yadgar Mirza raised the standard of insurrection in Kashmir, but the emperor had an army that recovered the province of Kashmir. In 1591, Akber sent an expedition to Sindh, eventually reduced it, and conquered it. In 1567, with war elephants and cavalry, seiged Chittor, where more than thirty thousand Rajputs were slain in this battle. The fame acquired facilitated Akber's conquests in Gujrat, Behar, Rajputana, and Bengal.




Akber, a Lax Musalman
Akber's Character Akber was a lax Musalman who endeavoured to form a new religion, which was merely a pure deism. He worshipped the sun with the Brahmin, discoursed with the Christian, and respected the Jews. During his stay at Lahore, Akber introduced those principles of religious toleration. He invited men of all religious backgrounds to discuss religious thoughts. Akber was found of hunting, and took great delight in performances of wrestlers, fencers, dancers, and actors.

Rule of Akber Akber possessed an inquisitive mind, was skilled in various mechanical arts, and delighted in Indian fables. He appointed inspectors to stop widow burning among the Hindus, and restricted polygamy amonst the Musalmans. The study of Arabic was prohibited, and that of astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and philosophy encouraged. The court of Akber was maintained on a scale of imperial magnificence, and never had fewer than 12,000 horses and 5,000 elephants in his own stables. The throne was reached by silver steps, and which four silver lions supported a canopy of gold, with jewels. The king died on October 13th, 1605, after a reign of fifty-one years.


His Legacy Akber was a born statesman and soldier. He had never received an education, or even learnt to read or write. He ignored distinctions of race and creed, and wished to mould the Rajput and Musalman into one imperial system. He wanted to hold the empire together by cementing a political alliance between Musalmans and Hindus. His voice was louad and his speech elegant. A generous and merciful ruler, a brave soldier, Akber has left behind him one of the brightest names in the history of the world.

« Last Edit: December 01, 2011, 07:48:11 PM by GURSHARAN »

GURSHARAN NATT

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Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #27 on: December 01, 2011, 07:49:32 PM »
Muhyuddin Aurangzeb

Muhyuddin Aurangzeb Aurangzeb was in his fortieth year when he deposed his father. He ascended the throne of Delhi in 1658. He restored the Arabic luner months and prohibited the use of wine. He abolished singing, dancing, and buffonery, and as a result singers and musicians were reduced to starvation. He discouraged the teaching of the Hindus and burnt many of their temples. About three hundred temples in various parts of Rajputana were destroyed and their idols broken. About the year 1690, the emperor issued an edict prohibiting Hindus from being carried in palanquins and riding on Arab horses.


Emperor Aurangzeb

Conquests and Expeditions Aurangzeb conquered the kingdoms of Golconda and Bijapur. Throughout the Mahomedan world, the emperor was held in the highest respect, and his capital was attended by ambassadors from Mecca, Arabia, and Uzbeks. During his summer visits to Kashmir, Aurangzeb indulged in the society of his ladies, who pleased him with flattery and caresses. Around 1672, Santa Ramis, a sect of Hindu devotees, had risen in revolt. However, the royal troops defeated the insurgents and massacred in cold blood the male inhabitants. Women and children were seized and sold as slaves. Aurangzeb died in his camp at Ahmadnagar, in 1707, at the age of eighty-nine, in the fiftieth year of his reign.


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« Reply #28 on: December 01, 2011, 07:49:57 PM »
  Kutbuddin Muhammad Moazzam

Kutbuddin Muhammad Moazzam In March 1707, Muhammad Moazzam immediately assumed the royal diadem and ascended the throne. He had an army march to Agra to fight for the throne of Delhi and came out victorious. In 1708, Bahadur Shah had Moazzam killed and assummed the title of emperor.


Bahadur Shah About this time the Sikhs, a class of eclectic sectaries, who had sprung up in the Punjab, overran the provinces of Sirhind, Saharanpur, and part of Mozaffarnagar. This compelled Bahadur Shah to remove his capital from Delhi to Lahore. Bahadur Shah was generally a generous, munificent, and good-natured prince. He died in February 19th, 1712.


Muhammad Mozuddin Jahandar Shah The death of Bahadur Shah was followed by the usual struggle for sovereignt among his four sons. After civil war with his brothers, and his brothers were killed, M ozuddin eventually ascended the throne. Jahandar Shah was a weak and idolent prince, effeminate, licentious, and fond of ease. The king abandoned himself to dissoluteness, and Zulfikar Khan exercised the paramount power in the State.


Farrukhseer In the midst of this scene of disorder and imbecility, Farrukhseer, assisted by the Sayads, was preparing for war at Patna. A powerful army was sent to oppose his progress, but was defeated. On December 30th, 1712, in the plains of Agra, Farukhseer defeated the emperor, and thus ended his reign only after eleven months.



GURSHARAN NATT

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« Reply #29 on: December 01, 2011, 07:50:43 PM »
 Muhammad Farrukhseer

Muhammad Farrukhseer Farrukhseer was still on the battle-field when he ascended the throne on January 1st, 1713. Jahandar Shah, the former emperor, was confined and then strangled, and his body was carried through the streets of the city. The empire did not prosper under Farrukhseer. He was weak and timid, destitue of morals and capacity, and lavished favors on low people.


Persecution of the Sikhs The Sikhs, in the meantime, became turbulant in the Punjab. The emperor sent a large army towards the Punjab. The Sikhs, blockaded and pressed by hunger and deprivation, surrendered at discretion. Two thousand of them were massacred and their leader, Banda, sent in chains to Delhi, with his associates, where they were all tortured and put to death. A royal edict was issued to put all who professed the religion of Nanak to the sword, and a money reward was offered for the head of every Sikh. The irritated Mahomedans gave them no quarter and wherever a Sikh was founded he was butchered unmercifully. In order to give full effect to the royal mandate, Mahomedans and Hindus were strictly enjoined to clip their hair short (Sikhs keep their hair long). Many who could not abandon their homes changed their external appearance, had their beard and moustaches clipped, and gave up on their outward form of worship.


Muhammad Farrukhseer

Rafiuldarajat Suddenly it was announced to the citizens that Shamsuddin Rafiuldarajat, grandson of Bahadur Shah, had assumed the role of emperor. Farrukhseer was taken prisoner, and was flung into his solitary cell. A leathern thong, or the bowstring, was strained around his neck. He was executed with a dagger on May 16th, 1719, after a reign of six years. After three months of his accession, Shamsuddin Rafiuldarajat died of consumption.


Rafiuddoula Shah Jahan II On the death of Rafiuldarajat, his younger brother, Rafiuddoula ascended the throne. There was an insurrection at Agra where Neko Sere, younger son of Akber, assumed independence and proclaimed himself king. After a nominal reign of three montsh, Rafiuddoula died of mental disorder.


Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah In October 1719, Abul Fatah Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah ascended the throne. Husein Ali created a plot to assassinate the king, but the king had him murdered in October, 1720. The king also had Sayad Abdulla put to death because of distrust.


Pathan and Kashmir Revolts The Pathans of Kasur, south of Lahore, raised a standard of revolt under their leader Husein Khan, an Afghan, and took posession of some fertile districts about Kasur and Lahore. The king sent an army that crushed the revolt. In Kashmir, Mohtawi Khan deposed the imperial governer and proclaimed himself ruler of Kashmir. Eventually, he is defeated and slain, and the imperialists, after great bloodshed, are able to restore order in Kashmir.

 

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