Author Topic: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers  (Read 45549 times)

GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #10 on: December 01, 2011, 07:06:22 PM »
Modern Hindus

Hindu Gods The Hindu system of theology is professedly founded on the Vedas, and great objects of worship include Indra, the firmament, Surya, the god of the sun, Soma, the god of the moon. Brahma, the grandfather of the gods and the human race, is the chief person of the Trinity, representing the creating, the preserving and destroying principles. Indra is regarded as the generous bestower of sons, riches, houses, and various pleasures. Shiva, the destroyer, the prince of death and god of war, is represented with five faces and four arms. Vishnu, the preserver, is represented in the form of a black man and is the household god that has power to remove family misfortunes. Ganesh, with his elephant head and four hands, has power over civil matters. Many business people keep his image as an emblem of protection. The goddess Durga is represented as having ten arms and is the great destroyer of giants. Kali is represented as a black Medusa, with every characteristic of horror and dread. Saraswati, the goddess of learning, is represented as a white woman.




Hindu God Ganesh
System of Caste The system of caste is so deep rooted in the social institution of the Hindus that it now forms the vital part of their religion. The Brahmins worked on the imaginations and fears of the people so well that they became an indolent, covetous and superstitious set of people. He who breaks his word with a Brahmin, or inflicts injury on him, will, after death, be born again in the form of a devil living in a thick forest. Nor have the Muslims in India been able to exclude the effects of the caste system. For instance, the Indian Muslim would often neither dine with a Christian nor eat food prepared by him. Buddhism, which professes a common brotherhood among mankind, waged a war of centuries against caste, but was not accepted by the people, who relapsed into caste. The great Nanak, founder of Sikhism, preached social equality of all races, but was unable to completely break the fence of caste.


Customs and Practices The larger rivers of India are the objects of great veneration among Hindus. Bathe in her waters, and all your sins, however heinous, are washed away. It is meritorious to die within sight of the Ganges. Sick persons are taken to its banks, that they may breathe their last by the holy stream and thereby pave the way to heaven. The cow is the object of the profoundest veneration. Snake worship is very prevalent in the Punjab in honour of the snake deity. Stones possessing some peculiarity are worshipped, as well as the sainted dead. A belief in the transmigration of the souls forms the principle element of the Hindu faith. Until the soul is purified in its essence there can be no deliverance from a future existence; the soul must appear and disappear in the forms of various beings until that degree of purity is attained. The pious should consciously neither molest or destroy any living being. One's future state of being depends entirely on the good or bad deeds of the present life. A touch of a dead body also causes uncleanness, and a man considered to a certain extent impure while on a bed of sickness. A man who kills a cow, even by accident, commits a great crime, and forthwith becomes unclean, and he cannot be purified without going to the Ganges, and performing there certain ceremonies.

GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #11 on: December 01, 2011, 07:06:46 PM »
 Buddhism in the Punjab

Sidhartha When idolatry started to prevail; when God had been extended to thousands of terrestrial gods; when the influence of Brahmins and caste was surpreme; there arose a reformer, whose object was to emancipate people and awaken them. This was Buddha, the celebrated sage and hermit prince, whose religion has been accepted by nearly half the human race. His original name was Sidhartha, and he was the son of Suddhodana, who reigned over a large kingdom at the foot of the Nepal mountains. Born in 622 B.C., he had two wives, a number of concubines, with whom he lived a life of luxury and pleasure. When he became 29 years old, while walking out of his palace, he saw a decrepit old man, with trembling limbs, covered in sores. Sidhartha claimed: "Woe to the earth, which is a vale of misery, and to the world, which is full of pain!" Sidhartha then resolved to retire from the world, left his palace, his wives, and children.




Buddha
His Beliefs Sidhartha subjected himself to the seveest penances, enduring hunger, thirst, heat, cold, and storms. He gave himself up to meditation and arrived at the knowledge necessary to enable a man to disregard the evils that flesh is heir to. He concluded four sublime truths: pain; the creation of the pain; freedom from pain; and the means of its annihilation, which is the attainment of eternal bliss. He called himself the Buddha, the enlightened, and preached the doctrines of his religion to his fellow-creatures. His last words were, Nothing Continues, indicating plainly that beyond death there is nothing but extinction and absorption into the Divine Being.


Spread of Buddhism His religion spread over the whole of India, but after a hard contest for fifteen hundred years, it finally gave way to Brahminism, which has outlived its formidable rival. In the abstract, Buddhism was atheism, coupled with a system of rigid self-mortifications and penances. A religion so barren in its results proved distasteful to the lively and imaginative people of India, and was discarded by them. Budhism attained its greatest extent and influence under the benevolent reign of Asoka in 275 B.C.. His kingdom extended from the mouth of the Ganges on the east to the Indus on the west. Renouncing the Hindu faith, he became a convert to Buddhism, and by his zeal extended the doctrines of his new faith by sending political missions to China, Thibet, Burma, Siam, Ceylon, Cambodia, and Java. The great Asoka tolerated Hinduism and preached peace and fellowship among men.


GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #12 on: December 01, 2011, 07:07:16 PM »
 Invasion of Punjab by Osiris, King of Egypt

Invasion of Punjab by Osiris, King of Eygpt The ancient Hindus called Egypt Misrasthan, from its being inhabited by Misraim, the son of Ham. Egypt flourished at a period long before the Greeks emerged from barbarism, and Osiris, the king of Egypt, is praised not only as a great warrior, but as a zealous promoter of the arts. He conquered Ehtiopia and Arabia, and eventually marched at the head of his forces in the direction of the Punjab. The people of the Punjab assembled in immense numbers to defend their country, but offered but a feeble resistance. The plains of the Punjab fell into the possession of the foreign conqueror, who pushed his conquests to the mounth of the Ganges. After a three year stay, the Egyptians returned to their native land, after erecting pillars and monuments, and founding cities in the name of Osiris.


Invasion of Punjab by Semiramis, Queen of Assyria When the ancient empire of Babylonia was absorbed in that of Assyria, Ninus became the first king. On his death, about the ninth century B.C., Semiramis, his queen, succeeded to the vast monarchy. Impelled by the riches of India, she undertook her celebrated expedition to this country. Semiramis is believed to be the Sami Rama of the Hindu Puranas and is worshipped by the Hindus as a deity. It does not appear that the Assyrians penetrated far beyond the western frontier of the Punjab. The great obstacles were the presence of a wide stream on the north-west of Punjab, and the superiority of the Indians in possessing war elephants. The Assyrians won the first battle, but the inhabitants eventually routed the invaders, and eventually the Queen retreated to her native land, with a considerable loss to the remnants of her army.


Osiris, King of Egypt

Invasion of Punjab by Sesostris, King of Eygpt Sesostris flourished on the throne of Eygpt in the eighteenth century before the Christian era. He was a powerful king both by land and sea, and having overrun the whole province of Asia, he penetrated the wild deserts of Scythia and Thrace, and then bent his attention towards the conquest of India. He led his army into Punjab, and extended his sway as far as the Ganges. He erected pillars descriptive of his conquest and glory, inscribed with various symbols.


Invasion of Punjab by the Scythians, or Tartars The history of that nation begins with Oghaz, who made war on Persia, and carried his arms to Irak, Azarbajan, and Armenia. He then advanced to Kabul and Ghazni, and reduced Northern India, including Kashmir. Jagma, ruler of Kashmir, offered a stout resistance, but was eventually reduced. Jagma was massacred, and a considerable number of the Kashmir inhabitants were put to the sword. The Tartars invaded Punjab again in 650 B.C., and a considerable portion of the army of the Scythians settled in the Punjab. A race of them, called Nomardy, inhabited the country on the west bank of the Indus. They are described as a nomadic tribe, living in wooden homes. A portion of these settlers were called the Getes, from whom sprung the modern Jatts. The migration of vast hordes of Scythian plunderers and conquerors into the Punjab, and, indeed, the whole of India had its effect both dynastic and religious.


Persian Conquest of the Punjab The first recorded invasion of India by the Persians was under Faridun, founder of Isthakar, or Persepolis, who flourished about 750 B.C.. No details are given as to how far the empire of Faridun extended in India, but it certainly included the Punjab. There was a great battle fought between the Persians and the Indians, in which the latter sustained a severe defeat. Darius I, who was elected king of Persia in 521 B.C., is mentioned as the next Persian soverign who attempted the conquest of India.


GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #13 on: December 01, 2011, 07:07:47 PM »
Invasion of Punjab by Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon and Olymphias, was born at Pella in 356 B.C. and received education from Aristotle, especially in the arts of government and war. On the assassination of his father, Alexander ascended the throne, in 336 B.C., at the age of 20. At the time, the small but powerful country of Greece was divided into several states which were constantly at war with each other.


Various Conquests Soon after his accession to the throne, Alexander conquered Thrace and reduced Thebes. In his celebrated march across the Hellespont, he defeated an army of 110,000 Persians. He eventually turned his arms against Syria and Phoenicia, occupied the great city of Damascus, and conquered all the cities on the shore of the Mediterranean. He then marched to Jerusalem and received the submission of Palestine, and went northwards into Messopotamia and Assyria. Wherever Alexander went, he subdued nations, built strong forts, and founded new cities.




Alexander the Great
Conquest of Punjab Having conquered Drangiana, Archosia, Gedrosia, and Seistan, in ten days, Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush and was thus fully informed of the magnificence of the country and its riches in gold, gems and pearls. However, Alexander had to encounter and reduce the tribes on the border of Punjab before entering the luxriant plains. Having taken a north-easterly direction, he marched against the Aspii, mountaineers, who offered a vigorous resistance but were subdued. Alexander then marched through Ghazni, and shortly after, blockaded Magassa, and then marched to Ora and Bazira. Turning to the north-east, Alexander marched to Pucela, the capital of the district now known as Pakhli. He entered Western Punjab, where the ancient city of Nysa was situated. A coalition was formed against Alexander by the Cathians, the people of Multan, who were very skillful in war. Alexander invested heavy troops and eventually seventeen thousand Cathians feel in this battle, and the city of Sanghala was razed to the ground.


Legacy of Alexander In the southern extremity of the Punjab, Alexander built a city which he named Alexandria. Alexander established a chain of forts along the whole line of the Indus, for commercial and political purposes, and he built various military posts. There was a coalition formed by the Brahmins to expel the foreign invaders, but Peithon, appointed by Alexander, crushed the insurgents, and a large number of priests and Brahmins were publicly crucified. Alexander left Punjab in 326 B.C., and took his army to Persia and Susa. He had conquered the whole of the then known world. In every part of the world he visited, he founded magnificent cities, constructed large fleets, and developed commercial places. He died in his palace in Babylon on June 13th, 323 B.C., in the 32nd year of his age. Within a few years of his death, his wives, his child, and his mother were all killed, and his vast empire divided among his generals, so that nothing remained of him but his name.


GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #14 on: December 01, 2011, 07:08:14 PM »
 From the Death of Alexander to the Mahomedan Invasions

Indians Rise in Revolt Immediately on the departure of Alexander from Indian soil, the Indians rose in revolt, and the Macedonian governor left by him in the country was slain, while his mixed force of Greeks and Indians were either put to the sword, or otherwise dispersed. The result of this proceeding was a massacre of the Indians by the new Macedonian contingent, King Porus. Due to the rebellion breaking out in Babylong, the Greek rulers eventually left Punjab and concluded a peace treaty by which Punjab was ceded to an Indian king, who in return, presented the Greeks with war elephants and chariots.


Rise of Indians

Invasion of Punjab by Various Foreigners In 206 B.C., the Punjab was invaded by Antiochus, grandson of Seleucus Nicator. At that time, Punjab was ruled by Asoka, a zealous Buddhist. Eventually, Antiochus concluded a treaty of peace with Asoka, and Greek influence was thus maintained in the Punjab. Eneradites, great king of Bactria, invaded the Punjab in the year 165 B.C., reducing the country as far as Patala, the modern Hyderabad, in Sindh. His successors, Manander and Appollodotus, ruled the Punjab from the year 126 B.C. to 110 B.C. About the year 110 B.C., the Scythic element was predominant in the Punjab. The You-ti emigrated in great hordes to Afghanistan and eventually into the Punjab. The Scythian kings were expelled by the great Indian sovereign, Vikramaditya, in 56 B.C., but on his death, the country was overrun by fresh hordes of Scythians, who ruled until the 5th century of the Christian era. In the beginning of fifth century A.D., the dynasty of Kadphises was subverted by the Ephthalites, who were subdued in 555 A.D. by the Turks. Portions of Punjab were also, from time to time, conquered by the kings of Kashmir.




Influence of Greeks
Greek Influence on Punjab In the Punjab, where the Greeks had settled in considerable numbers, their influence was great. The architecture of the country owed its first impluse to Grecian art, and the Buddhist monasteries abound with statues and figures chiselled after the fashion of the Greeks. These monuments of Buddho-Grecian art have been excavated from various parts of the Punjab border, and now form a beautiful collection in the Lahore museum.

GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #15 on: December 01, 2011, 07:27:10 PM »
 The Mahomedan Period

Birth of Islam During a time when the deluge of barbarism had overspread the west; when nations of Asia, Syria, and Eygpt sunk under weight of despotism; when the Roman empire had lost all its greatness, a new religion sprang up in the world affecting the political history of all nations. This religion was Islam, founded by Muhammad, an Arabian, who announced a divine revelation. He called the latent passions and talents of the Arabs into activity and animated them with a new spirit. By the force of his persuasive eloquence and extraordinary zeal and energy, this great Arabian reformer converted a race of wandering shepherds into the founders of mighty empires.


Birth of Islam

The Holy Crusades The early Muslims propagated varies territories by the sword. The belief was that he who perished in a holy war went straight to heaven. His follower's martial spirits were roused, and their sensual passions were inflamed. As early as 589 A.D. the Mahomedans penetrated into the extensive province of Khorasan, and thirteen years later conquered Kabul in the south of Persia.




Battles in the Punjab
Conquest of the Punjab In 711 A.D., Kasim, and Arab general, led an army to take over the Indus. Raja Dahu, the prince of the country, assembled a numerous force, but Kasim carried by storm a celebrated temple held in great sanctity by the Brahmins, where a large booty feel into the hands of the Mahomedan invaders. The Hindus were panic-stricken and fled, their prince having perished in the field of battle. Elated by triumph, the Arab general advanced to Brahminabad, which was gallantly defended by a Hindu queen. In an attack made by the Mahomedans, this lady, with her Rajput bodyguard, perished, and the whole country was at the mercy of the invaders. Kasim then marched to Multan, which was carried by assault, and a few more victories completed the conquest of Sindh. Kasim ruled for many years, but by the death of Kasim, the Mahomedian government sustained a blow which it was never in a position to retrieve. His successors ruled the country for about fourty years, but the Rajput tribes of Sumera, having expelled them, became masters of the land.

GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #16 on: December 01, 2011, 07:27:46 PM »
  Ghanznivide Dynasty

Alaptagin Alaptagin, a Turki slave, who governed the vast province of Khorasan, marched with a considerable army from Nishapur, the capital of Khorasan, to Ghizni, and after gaining several victories over the royal troops, assumed the insignia of sovereignty. Alaptagin frequently employed his armies for the reduction of the provinces of Multan and Lamghan, and thousands of inhabitans were carried away as slaves to Ghizni. Alaptagin reigned in peace for fifteen years, and on his death in 976, Sabuktagin, who had married his daughter, was installed on the throne of Ghizni.

Amir Nasir-Uddin Sabuktagin Sabuktagin, a slave of Turkish extraction, was educated and taught the use of arms. He resolved a war with idolators of India, who only known of worship of Brahma and Buddha. The Punjab at the time was ruled by Jaipal, whose territory extended from the Indus to Laghman, and from Kashmir to Multan. Sabuktagin, having marched eastwards with a considerable army in 977, reduced forts and caused mosques to be built. Jaipal organized an army to meet Sabuktagin, but the troops suffered heavily, and the Hindus, worsted at every point, fled to the banks of the Nilab. For the rest of his life, Sabuktagin enganged in military exploits and died in 997, in the fifty-sixth year of his age.


Mahmud II

Sultan Mahmud, Ghaznavi Mahmud, at the age of thirty, asserted his right to the throne after the death of his father. Mahmud had long heard accounts of the wealth and splendour of the countries to the east, and wanted to turn arms against the idolaters and introduce, in its stead, the worship of the one God. Accordingly, in 1001 A.D., he marched from Ghazni to Peshawar, where the Hindus fought desperately, but were completely routed. The victory aquired Mahmud great fame and wealth, and he continued to Bhatinda, and reduced it. In 1005, Mahmud conquered Multan. His passion for propagating Islam and destroying Hindu idols, he laid siege the famous fort of Bhim, one of the holy shrines of the Punjab, and obtained gold, silver, jewels, pearls, corals, diamonds, and rubies. In 1011 A.D., Mahmud resolved on the conquest of Thanesar, which was held in great veneration by the Hindus, and captured the town, plundered the inhabitants, destroyed the great temples, and broke the idols to pieces. In 1017, Mahmud marched to Kanauj and Mathura, and destroyed these cities. After destroying all the temples, he erected a magnificent mosque of marble and granite, and established a grand university. Mahmud called Lahore, after his own name, Mahmudpur. Mahmud's last expedition to the Punjab was in 1027, and he reduced the Jat tribes living on the banks of the Indus. Mahmud died on April 29th, 1030 in the sixty-third year of his age. At the time of his death, Mahmud left an empire far exceeding that of any monarch then living.


Sultan Masud I Sultan Mahmud left two sons, Muhammad and Masud. Muhammad was deprived of his sight and was deposed by Masud, who became the king, or Sultan, of Ghazni. In 1033, Masud made an attack on the fort of Sursuti, in Kashmir. The entire garrison were put to the sword, except the women and children, who were carried away as slaves. He withdrew Lahore, and afterwards, was determined to stay in India. However, Muhammad had the army despose Masud, and eventually he was assasinated. Masud reigned nine years.

Sultan Maudud Maudud, hearing of his father's murder, immediately marched to Lahore to avenge his father's death. Muhammad was put to the sword, and at the spot, Maudud founded a town called Fathabad. In 1043, the Hindu rajas formed a confederation, but the Mahomedan garrison defended the town, and the Hindus were reduced. Maudud remained in peache for the rest of his life and died at Ghazni on December 24th, 1049, having reigned for nine years.


Sultan Abul Husein Abul Hasan, son of Emperor Masud I, was proclaimed emperor of Ghazni. After raising a large army, he reduced Multan and Sindh, and subdued the Afghans. Abul Husein, unable to restore order in the Punjab, was, towards the end of 1051, defeated and deposed by Abdul Rashid, a son of Sultan Mahmud, after reigning for two years.

Sultan Abdul Rashid Abdul Rashid reigned one year, at the end of which he was assassinated by Toghral in 1052.

Sultan Farakhzad Farakhzad, the son of Sultan Masud I, was raised to the throne of Ghazni. Indian possessions of the Ghaznivides remained in peace during the reign of the Sultan, which lasted about six years, at the end of which he died and was succeeded by his brother, Ibrahim.

Sultan Ibrahim Sultan Ibrahim marched to the Punjab, to conquer those parts of the countries not yet visited by the Mahomedan arms. In 1079, he captured Ajuddan, now called Pak Patan, in the Montgomery District. Her marched to Dera and the inhabitants surrendered. He tried to force the people to embrace Islam, but to no avail, and took the people away as slaves to Ghazni. Sultan Ibrahim died in 1098, having reigned for 42 years, and being blessed with 36 sons and 40 daughters by various wives. He was succeeded by Masud III.


Sultan Masud III Masud III possessed a maritial spirit and was distinguished for his love of justice and benevolence. During his reign, the army crossed the Ganges and carried the Mahomedan arms further, plundered many rich cities and temples, and returned to Lahore laden with enormous spoil. During his reign, Lahore became the real capital of the Ghaznivide dynasty. After reigning for sixteen years without domestic troubles or foreign wars, Masud died in 1118.

Sultan Arslan Arslan, son of the late king, ascended the throne, but after a couple of years, was expelled from Ghazni, took refuge with the Afghans, but was hotly pursued and met a violent death in 1121 at the hands of his brother Bahram.

Sultan Bahram Bahram assended the throne in 1121, and first thing he accomplished was to kill his brothers. In 1152, Bahram died on the way of a broken heart.

Sultan Khusrau Khusrau, son of Bahram, arrived safely at Lahore, where he was saluted king. He reigned in Lahore for seven years in peace, and died in 1160.

Sultan Khusrau Malik Khusrau Malik, son of the late Sultan Khusrau, ascended the throne and ruled with justice and moderation. He was destined to be the last of the Ghaznivide dynasty to rule in the Punjab. The kingdom of Ghazni was, during his time, invaded and conquered by Sultan Shahab-uddin Muhammad Ghori. Muhammad Ghori eventually marched into Punjab and overran provinces of Peshawar, Afghanistan, Multan, and the Indus. In 1180, he invested Lahore. Peace was concluded, but after a couple years, Muhammad Ghori took possession of Lahore, and the great Ghaznivide dynasty, which lasted from 962 to 1186, or for 224 years, ceased to exist.

GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #17 on: December 01, 2011, 07:28:18 PM »
he Ghori Dynasty

Muhammad Ghori In 1176, Muhammad Ghori conducted an army against Multan, which he completely subdued. Then he marched to Uch, opened private negotiations with the king's wife, and promised to marry her if she would make away with her husband. The wicked woman found means of putting her husband to death and the gates of the fort were openned and Muhammad took possession of it without trouble. However, he made no hesitation to break his promise and sent the woman off to Ghazni, where she soon died of remorse and vexation. Having conferred the government of Multand and Uch, Muhammad returned to Ghazni.


Revolt by the Ghakkars Meanwhile the Ghakkars, a tribe in the mountains of the Punjab, raised a revolt, laying waste the country between the Jhelum and the Chenab. These people overran the whole of the Punjab and even captured Lahore. Muhammad Ghori, who was now at Ghazni, hearing this, marched into the Punjab and defeated the Ghakkars with great slaughter, and most of their numbers were converted to Islam. Having settled these affairs, the Sultan encamped near the bank of the Indus preparing to go back to Ghazni. A body of Ghakkars assasinated him with daggers on March 14th, 1205. Muhammad Ghori reigned for thirty-two years.


GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #18 on: December 01, 2011, 07:28:48 PM »
The Tartar, or Slave Dynasty

Kutb-Uddin Ebak On July 24th, 1205, Kuth-Uddin Ebak was crowned as the first Mahomedan king of Lahore. He made considerable progress in knowledge and science, and soon gained the reputation of being a brave soldier, a consummate general, and a prudent administrator. Taj-uddin Yelduz, governor of Kirman and Shirwan, marched to Lahore and took possesion of the city. Kutb-Uddin, on hearing of this, advanced from Delhi to recover Lahore, and defeated Taj-uddin. Kutb-Uddin spent the rest of his life in India, and died in 1210 after a fall from his horse. The celebrated Kutab Minar at Delhi, with a splendid mosque, commenced by Kutb-Uddin and completed by his successor Altmash, still towers today.


Aram Aram, only son of Kutb-Uddin, succeeded him and established his authority in Sindh, Multan, Uch, Shirwan, and other districts of Punjab. Shamsh-Uddin, son-in-law of the late king, defeated Aram in battle and took possession of the throne in the same year, 1210.

Shams-Uddin Altamash Shams-Uddin received a good education at Bokhara. In 1215, he seized the Punjab and occupied Thanesar. In 1217, he reduced Sindh, and at Ujjain, one of the most famous and ancient Hindu cities, he destroyed all the great temples and conveyed the images of Makakali and Vikramaditya. In 1236, he marched an army towards Multan, but fell sick on the road and died in April 1236, after reigning for twenty-six years.


Tartar Dyanasty

Rukn-Uddin Feroz On May 1st, 1231, Rukn-Uddin Feroz was crowned king of Punjab. He tended to give himself up to licentious excesses and neglected the affairs of the state. A coalition of chiefs formed at Lahore to dispose the king, and Rukn-Uddin was defeated and died in prison on November, 1236, after reigning only six months.

Sultana Razia Begum Sultana Razia Begum possessed valour, determination, and courage in an eminent degree, and was well educated and could read the Kuran with correct pronounciation. Many were discontent with a woman heading the empire, and the first to openly express discontent was Malik Kabir. The queen, however, succeeded and reduced him to submission. However, during the same year, Malik Altunia, governor of Bhatinda, revolted and defeated the queen, put her in prison, where she was assassinated on November 14th, 1239, after reigning for three years.


Moiz-Uddin Behram Shah Moiz-Uddin Behram Shah ascended the throne on April 21st, 1239. The peace of the empire was disturbed by internal discords and dissensions, and the Moghals, headed by Changez Khan, made incursions into the Punjab and seized Lahore on November 22nd, 1241. The Moghals gave up the city to indiscriminate plunder, and thousands were carried away as prisoners. A plot came about that deposed the king and put him to death in 1241, after a reign of two years.

Ala-Uddin Masud Ala-Uddin Masud succeeded the throne during a reign the Punjab was invaded by Moghals. The Moghals advanced as far as the Indus, and the king, heading the troops, marched to meet the enemies. The Moghals retired, and after four years being king, Ala-Uddin was deposed by his uncle Nasir-Uddin and put in confinement in 1246.


Nasir-Uddin Mahmud Nasir-Uddin Mahmud, crowned king in June 1246, possessed all princely qualities and was a good soldier. He rebuilt the forts of bhatner and Sirhind, and maintained a standing army to defend against the Moghals. In July 1247, the king headed his army to Multan and captured thousands of Ghakkars of all ages and both sexes, and put them in prison. The king also was successful in driving Moghals from the country. In 1264, the emperor fell ill and expired in February 18th, 1266, after a reign of about twenty years.


Ghias-Uddin Balban Ghias-Uddin paid his first visit to Lahore in 1266, in which the city had suffered greatly from incursions of the Moghals. His youngest son, Kara Khan, recruited and organized and army to watch the movements of the Moghals on the river Bias. The Moghals attacked, but Kara Khan was successful in driving the Moghals out of Multan. Ghias-Uddin died in 1286, after a reign of twenty-two years.

Moz-Uddin Kekubad On the death of his grandfather, Kekubad, in his eighteenth year, ascended the throne. He gave himself up to licentious habits, and during his reign, the Moghals invaded various districts of the Punjab. The Moghals were again defeated, and many of them were brought as prisoners. The king was assassinated in his palace in 1288, and with it, the slave dynasty of kings, which had reigned from 1205 to 1288, came to an end. On his death, Jalal-Uddin was proclaimed king.

GURSHARAN NATT

  • Real Savvy
  • *****
  • Offline
  • Posts: 1995
  • Gender: Male
    • View Profile
Re: The Best ARTICLES from Newspapers
« Reply #19 on: December 01, 2011, 07:29:34 PM »
 The Khiljai Dynasty of the Tartars

Jalal-Uddin Feroz Jalal-Uddin was seventy years of age when he ascended the throne. In 1291, Abdulla, grandson of Changez Khan, having invaded the Punjab, Jalal-Uddin collected a large army to meet him. The Moghals were defeated and eventually bacame converts to Mahomedianism. Jalal-Uddin was assassinated at the instance of his nephew, Ala-Uddin, on July 19th, 1295, after reigning for seven years.


Ala-Uddin Khilji Ala-Uddin was crowned king in 1296 and immediately set out for Multan. The Moghals organized an army of one hundred thousand, under Amir Daud, and advanced towards Punjab to conquer Multan. The Moghals were defeated, with a lost of twelve thousand men, and large number were taken as prisoners. During the reign of Ala-Uddin, the Moghals invaded multiple times, and each time, they were successfully defeated. The reign of this emperor is noted for many reforms, as he enhanced teh revenue demand, fixed the price of grain, horses, cattle, and grocery. The use of spirituous liquors were prohibited under pains of the severest kind. Ala-Uddin died on December 19th, 1316, after a reign of twenty years.


Moghal Art

Kutb-Uddin Mobarak Shah Mobarak assumed sovereign power and crowned king on March 22nd, 1317. He released a large number of convicts, made a present of six months pay to the troops, and removed obnoxious taxes and tributes. On March 9th, 1329 he was murdered by Malik Khusrow, originally a Hindu slave. Ghazi Beg Toghlak, the able and brave viceroy of Lahore, marched from Punjab at the head of the army and were met by the royal troops on the banks of the Sursuti. Malik Khusrow was defeated and executed on August 22nd, 1321. Thus, the dynasty of the Khiljais, after reigning from 1288 to 1321, came to an end.

 

GoogleTagged