Author Topic: SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN  (Read 4784 times)

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SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
« on: June 14, 2009, 08:45:17 AM »
1. FEATURES OF BASIC  SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalise elementary education  by community-ownership of the school system. It is a response to  the demand  for quality  basic education all over the country. The SSA  programme is  lso an  attempt  to  provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children, through provision of  community-owned quality education in a mission mode.

2. WHAT IS SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
   A programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education.
   A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country.
   An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education.
   An effort at effectively involving the Panchayati Raj Institutions, School Management Committees, Village and Urban Slum level Education Committees, Parents' Teachers' Associations, Mother Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous Councils and other grass root level structures in the management of elementary schools.
   An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the country.   
   A partnership between the Central, State and the local government.
   An opportunity for States to develop their own vision of elementary education.

3. AIMS OF SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. There is also another goal to bridge social, regional and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in the management of schools.
Useful and relevant education signifies a quest for an education system that is not alienating and that draws on community solidarity. Its aim is to allow children to learn about and master their natural environment in a manner that allows the fullest harnessing of their human potential both spiritually and materially. This quest must also be a process of value based learning that allows children an opportunity to work for each other's well being rather than to permit mere selfish pursuits.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan realizes the importance of Early Childhood Care and Education and looks at the 0-14 age as a continuum. All efforts to support pre-school learning in ICDS centres or special pre-school centres in non ICDS areas will be made to supplement the efforts being made by the Department of Women and Child Development.     

4. OBJECTIVES OF SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN 
   All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, ' Back-to-School' camp by 2003;
   All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007
   All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010   
   Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life
   Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010
   Universal retention by 2010   


5. Goals of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:-

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalize elementary Education by community ownership and transparency in the schooling system. It is a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children, through provision of community-owned quality education in a mission mode.
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. There is also another goal to bridge social, regional and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in the management of schools. Useful and relevant education signifies a quest for an education system that is not alternating and that draws on community solidarity. Its aim is to allow children to learn about that natural environment in a manner that allow the fullest harnessing of their human potential both spiritually and materially. This quest must also be a process of value based learning that allows children an opportunity to work for each others well being rather than to permit mere selfish pursuits.


6. CIVIL  WORKS

Sarva Shiksha Scheme has been launched by Govt. of India for the upliftment of Govt. Primary and Upper-Primary Schools in the Country. Various Components have been successfully working under this scheme. The major aim of this scheme is the universalisation of Elementary Education to all the children. To strengthen this aim different types of Grant/Funds have been released every year for various components. Civil Works is one of the Major Components of this Schemes Crores of Rupees have been received every year for the betterment and speedy improvement of Govt. Primary as well as Upper-Primary Schools. It plays vital role especially in the retaining of infrastructure in the schools. Because provision of adequate infrastructure helps in retaining the children in the school as well as creates deep interest in the study. Govt.School Building which were previously in much distorted condition are now the improved ones. Additional Classrooms with Verandahs and Sanitation Blocks separately both for Boys and Girls have been constructed with this Grant. With the help of this Grant Block Resource Centers (BRC) and Cluster Resource Centers (CRC) have been constructed. These prove to be fruitful for training purposes and Seminars etc. The construction work under this component is being run with the participation of the local community creating a child friendly school environment and ensuring the quality of construction work, are the three basic features of this component under SSA. District Resource Person (DRP) as well Block Resource persons (BRP) have been deputed to ensure the quality as well as the quantity  of above said work.


7. MAINTENANCE & REPAIR GRANT
Meaning and Purpose:- Under this component grant of Rs.7500/- per annum per school per year can be utilized for the following activities of the schools.
a.   Repair and maintenance of the room, toilets, drinking water facilities etc.
b.   Repair and maintenance of electrical equipments such as wiring, fans, lights etc.
c.   White wash, paints etc.

8. SCHOOL GRANT
Meaning and purpose:- School grant of Rs.5000/- per school per year for primary school and Rs.7000/- per year for upper primary school can utilized for following purpose:
a.   Black Boards, charts, Slates, Dusters etc.
b.   Table, chairs etc.
c.   Newspapers, Magazines, Journals and other material.
d.   Any other items required for the school for improvement of the functioning of the school.


9. TEACHER GRANT

Meaning and purpose :- Teacher grants Rs.500/- per teacher per year can utilized to enhance the teacher learning process for the following:
a.   Subject related kits such as mathematics Kits, Science Kit.
b.   Informative/ General Knowledge books, Dictionaries & Maps
c.   Globes, Magnifying Glasses (lens), Compass, Chalks, Black Board, Dusters.
10. EGS CENTERS AND ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS

The focus of this scheme is on ensuring participation of all ?out of school? children including children living in small, un served habitations and other categories of children, migrating children, street children, adolescent girls, children of sex workers etc. who are out of school. This scheme provided access to schooling for such children. Keeping this objective in mind a provision of EGS centers and Alternative Schools have also been made to enroll the children belonging to 6 ? 14 age group.


11. RESEARCH AND EVALUATION

Financial :

Another sum of Rs.1400/- school per school per year has been allocated to schools against this component. Under this component a pool of resource persons at national, state, District, Sub- District level for effective field based monitoring providing travel grant and very modest honorarium (as per state specific norm) to resource person for monitoring, providing regular generation of community based data, under taking research activities, setting up special task force for low female literacy district and for monitoring of girls SC/ST.

-   Activity Based Learning introduced in 10 primary schools on pilot basis.
-   Activity based learning Kit developed and introduced in these schools. Games in the kit are designed to teach children the fundamentals of English and math through activity based techniques. By employing this method, children learn by doing and while having fun, resulting in clarity of concepts as well as greater retention.
-   School readiness kit also introduced in these schools.
-   Math lab kit introduced to make math concepts crystal clear.
-   Attractive jhoolas installed with help of community participation in these schools.
-   Events of historical significance celebrated in these schools to give children a feel of our rich cultural heritage, in the school setting.
-   Scheme has received excellent response from the community and added a new zest towards education in the community and has injected new life in the selected primary schools of the state, which are fast becoming a role model for others to emulate.
-   More schools to be covered under the scheme this year.


 12. IED (INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR THE DISABLED)

If we wish to Universalize Elementary Education (UEE), inclusion of children with special needs is a pressing imperative.  Access to education is a right of every child. The first few years of a child?s life are the most crucial. The children learn about themselves and the world around them. Their learning starts before they even step into a regular school. But for the hearing and speech impaired and mentally challenged children, the experience of growing and learning can be painful and frustrating; even more so, when the disabled child comes from an environment where survival is an everyday struggle and two square meals a day, an uncertainty. Coming from deprived families, their disability is further compounded by malnutrition and parental ignorance.
The goal of UEE cannot be achieved by denying education to these children. Hence, children with special needs should also be brought into the fold of meaningful learning. Awareness regarding how to deal with special need children are also necessary for parents.


13.  FREE TEXT/WORK BOOKS
The literacy figures of the district indicate very clearly that there is a wide gap in the female and male literacy rates.  The literacy rate in the females is very low at 61.41 in comparison to males. Rural female literacy rate is further very low at 45.64 as comparison to males as well as with district female literacy rate. To fill this gap special facilities have been introduced to attract and encourage the girl students to come into the fold of schooling. A scheme has been launched to provide free textbooks to the girls belonging to the general category. The department of Social Welfare Punjab is already providing free textbooks to SC/BC girls

14. ECCE             
There is a need of care and attention for the early aged children. To provide care and preliminary education it is proposed to continue ECCE centers. There are 57 ECCE centers running in the district.  It is planned to provide training to all volunteers in ECCE centers. It is propose to open 43 New ECCE Centres in the Village.

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Re: SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
« Reply #1 on: June 14, 2009, 05:13:38 PM »
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

Every education policy is made to achieve certain objectives that emerge from the philosophy, which emerge from needs & aspirations of people and society. Education, which co-relates every fact of human development, requires a continuing policy input and initiative. The philosophy expressed in objectives must be able to meet the needs not only of the present but of the future also, what hold good today may not serve the needs of next generation.

The first decade of the new millennium is undoubtedly an appropriate time for stocktaking. And as we cast our eyes over the myriad challenges that confront humanity, the most persistent and yet perhaps remains the most challengeable is elementary education.

 1.1 STATE EDUCATION POLICY: A BRIEF NOTE

Part IV of our Constitution lays down the Directive Principles of State Policy Article 45 under this Part, which deals with ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "provision for free and compulsory education for children' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    '' , read as follows: -

' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "The State shall endeavor to provide, within a period of 10 years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14years.' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''

The country has, since independence, made considerable progress in the areas of elementary education and literacy. Education policy has been formulated keeping in view the objective that every child has right to receive education of good quality. It has been formulated keeping in mind the following:

' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Education should be directed to all round development of human personality.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    There should be need for developing faith in basic principles of our policy viz. democracy, social justice and secularism.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Education should strengthen and promote our rich cultural heritage, nation consciousness, international understanding and world peace.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Teacher are part and parcel of social milieu sharing the need and aspiration of people;
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    There is a need to organize teaching as a profession for which expert knowledge specialized skills and dedication are requisite.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    The active involvement of the community in the schooling system to achieve the desired improvement and sustenance of the improved efficiency level. Put differently, the education planning and management should be highly participatory and evolve from grass root level. To remove the illiteracy- implementing SSA vigorously, computer education in schools is being implemented, Mid-day meal scheme is introduced, EGS centers have started functioning, administrative restructuring has been undertaken, construction work has started in schools and due efforts are being made towards integrated education for disabled children.









 1.2 ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
The Parliament has passed the Constitution 86th Amendment Act, 2002 to make elementary education a Fundamental Right for children in the age group of 6-14 years. It is proposed to bring in a follow-up legislation with detailed mechanism to implement this act.
The Scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was launched in 2001. The goals of SSA are as follows: (i) All 6-14 age children in school/Education Guarantee Scheme Centre/bridge course, (ii) All 6-14 age children complete five year primary education by 2007; (iii) All 6-14 age children complete eight years of schooling by 2010; (iv) Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life; (v) Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010; and (vi) Universal retention 2010.
The assistance under the programme of SSA was on a 85:15 sharing arrangement during the Ninth Plan, 75:25 sharing arrangement during the Tenth Plan, and 50:50 sharing thereafter between the Central Government and State Government. The programme covers the entire country and addresses the needs of 192 million children in 11 Lacs habitations. 8.5 lacs existing primary and upper primary schools and 33 lacs existing teachers would be covered under the scheme.
The programme seeks to open new schools in habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grant. The SSA has a special focus on girls and children of weaker sections. A number of initiatives including free textbooks, target these children under the programme. The SSA also seeks to provide computer education even in rural areas to bridge the digital divide.

 1.3 Significance of Elementary Education.
     Elementary Education obviously requires maximum attention in respect of its initiation to literacy, numeric socialization and culturalization. It is true that strengthening of elementary education is the first imperative to tone up the education system in general. It enables everyone to share advantage of the economic and social development taking place in developing countries.
The education of the children in Elementary schools is our prime concern. Elementary education serves as the first door through which the children reach the threshold of knowledge. It is essential because it increase the effectiveness of investment in many other departments such as health, nutrition, employment and revenue. Moreover it is the strong basis for all higher education.
One of the main objectives of SSA is to focus on Elementary Education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for individual' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s life development. A literate population is desirable  to increase the access to knowledge and the capacity to avail of all opportunities given by the state and Central Government. SSA project promises to give quality elementary education to all. Socio economic development can be established by bridging gender and social category gaps. It also envisages in giving education for national building with its initiatives and extortive efforts.

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Re: SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
« Reply #2 on: June 14, 2009, 05:14:38 PM »
1.4 Elementary Education and Literacy:-

Quality Elementary Education given to the people will improve their Literacy Rate. In this chapter the level of literacy in Amritsar District Goals and  objectives  of SSA are discussed.
The following table deals with the percentage of literacy level in Amritsar district for male and female in two decadal periods.



Table no 1.1    District Literacy Level
1991 Census   2001 Census
Male   Female   All   Male   Female   All
65.07   50.10   58.08   72.6   61.3   67.3

    While comparing the past two census reports. It is inferred from the above table that the Literacy Rate is increased from 58.08  to. 67.3 In a span of ten years. There is also clear trend in the increase of Literacy Rate in both male and female. In the Male literacy rate the increased  rate is 8% and the same in female is 11% . This is an encouraging trend.
 1.5 Goals of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:-
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalize elementary Education by community ownership and transparency in the schooling system. It is a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children, through provision of community-owned quality education in a mission mode.
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. There is also another goal to bridge social, regional and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in the management of schools. Useful and relevant education signifies a quest for an education system that is not alternating and that draws on community solidarity. Its aim is to allow children to learn about that natural environment in a manner that allow the fullest harnessing of their human potential both spiritually and materially. This quest must also be a process of value based learning that allows children an opportunity to work for each others well being rather than to permit mere selfish pursuits.

1.6 Objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:-
* All Children are to be enrolled in school, Education guarantee center, alternative school, and back to school camp by 2003.
* All children should complete five years of schooling by 2007.
* All children should complete eight years of Elementary Education by 2010.
* Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life.
* Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary stage by 2010.
* Universal retention by 2010.
   These objectives are expressed nationally. To achieve the goals of SSA, there is a need of work plan and budget provision. It is targeted to enroll all children by 2003 and to complete five years of Primary schooling by 2007 and eight years of elementary education by 2010. Cent Percent universal retention by 2010 is also targeted. In SSA all the fund facilities and opportunities are provided as much as the need. So this is a golden opportunity for each and every one to improve the society and to the uplift the Nation through the activities of SSA which gives free, compulsory and quality education.







Chapter 2 District profile

 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Amritsar is one of the Border district lying in the North-West frontier of the Punjab state. It is renowned the world over for Sri Darbar Sahib, historical Jalian Wala Bagh, Sri Durgiana Mandir, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Museum, Wagha Border, Khalsa College etc.

2.1.1 Origin of the name

        It is a religious capital of Sikhs. Fourth Guru of Sikhs,Shri Guru Ramdas ji laid the foundation of holy city Amritsar upon a site granted by Mughal Emperor Akbar. He also excavated the holy tank from which the town derives its name `Amrit Saras' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' or Pool of Immortality' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' , and in the midst, on a small island he began to erect a temple named Sri  Darbar Sahib the future center of Sikh devotion.
   
 2.1.2 Location

         Amritsar the most populated district in the state is one of the border districts, which shares international boundary with Pakistan. It is the most historical city of Punjab. It is situated in north-western part of the state in the `Bari Doab' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' , a territory situated between Beas and Ravi rivers. Punjab state is administratively divided in four Mandals namely Jalandhar, Patiala, Ferozepur and Faridkot. Amritsar district falls in Jalandhar Mandal and is surrounded by Gurdaspur district in the north-east, Kapurthala district in the east, separated by Beas river, Tarn-Taran district ( Which was the part of Amritsar district last year, Now it becomes a new district) in the south, separated by Pakistan in the west and north-west, partly separated by Ravi river.


Location of Amritsar district in Punjab
 
                                                       Not to scale




2.1.3 Occupation

Amritsar district has reported the third highest of age of Urban Population (39.5%) in the state, next to Ludhiana (55.84%) and Jalandhar (47.48%) district in the state during 2001 Census. Therefore, Occupational variation is  bound to be more pronounced in this district.

Table  No. 2.1
Classification of workers as %age to total workers (Main & Marginal)

   Cultivators   Agricultural Laborers   Workers in house Hold Industry   Other Workers
   P   M   F   P   M   F   P   M   F   P   M   F
TOTAL   21.7   23.9   13.4   17.2   15.7   22.4   4.0   2.6   9.1   57.2   57.8   55.1
RURAL   32.3   37.6   17.0   24.9   24.0   29.5   3.8   2.1   8.8   38.9   36.3   46.7
URBAN   2.4   2.7   0.9   3.4   3.0   4.5   4.2   3.4   9.8   90.1   90.9   84.8


    In brief, Population residing in rural areas had decreased by 5.43% in the district. The total cropped area has gone up by 23000 Hectares. There is an increase in milk production also i.e. 5000 thousand tons in 1999-2000 to 4500 thousand tons in 2000-2001.
 



2.1.4 Administrative Set Up

           The District is in charge of a Deputy Commissioner, aided by Assistant Commissioner and two Additional Deputy Commissioner. The District contains Four tahsils, and Eight Development Blocks.



Table No. 2.2

Basic Indicators

Name of the District: Amritsar

S. No.   No. of CD Blocks   No. Of Educational Blocks, If any   No. Of BRCs   No. of CRCs   No. of Villages   No. Of Panchayats
1   8   17   8   94   702   804


Source: DEO (EE), Amritsar   
    Year:- 2007-08
 

 
Figures varies from Last Year due to divison of Amritsar




















Table: 2.3    Block Wise No. of  Schools



Sr.No.   CD Block Name   No. of schools
1   Ajnala   178
2   Chogawan   168
3   Harsa Chhina   90
4   Jandiala   103
5   Majitha   130
6   Rayya   136
7   Tarsikka   123
8   Verka   269
TOTAL   1187

                                Block Wise No. of Schools


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Re: SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
« Reply #3 on: June 14, 2009, 05:15:08 PM »
2.2 GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES

2.2.1 Area

          Amritsar district has the area of 2310 square kilometers.
2.2.2 Climate
   
The climate of this district is characterized by general dryness, except during the South-West monsoon, a hot summer and a bracing winter. The year may be divided into four seasons ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '"
(i)   Summer (April to June)
(ii)   Winter (November to February)
(iii)   Spring (February end to mid of March)
(iv)   Autumn (October to mid of November)

The south - west monsoon season is from about the beginning of July to first week of September. The succeeding period lasting till the beginning of November is the post monsoon or transition period.

From about the end of March, temperature increases steadily till June, which is the hottest month when the maximum temperature may reach 450 C. With the on set of the monsoon in the district by about the end of June or in the beginning of July, there is appreciable drop in the day temperature. The nights are, however, as warm during the monsoon season as in the summer as owing to the increased moisture in the air, the weather is often oppressive. After the withdrawal of the monsoon in early September, whereas the day temperature remains the same as in the monsoon season, the nights become progressively cooler. From October, there is rapid drop in temperature. January is generally the coldest month.
 2.3 SOCIO ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
 2.3.1 Agriculture

Amritsar is a mainly an agricultural district as 60% of its population resides in rural areas according to 2001 census. The principal crops are Wheat, Sugar can, Paddy, Cotton and Maize. The two main crops harvested in a year are SAWNI and HARI. The SAWNI is the summer season harvest, whereas HARI is the winter season harvest. Beside there is another harvest, which is assessed along with SAWNI and sometimes with HARI. These mostly include vegetables and fodder. The principal SAWNI crops are Paddy, Cotton, Maize and Sugar can whereas subsidiary crops are SAWNI vegetables. The principal HARI crops are Wheat, Gram, Barley, Barseem, whereas minor' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s one are Oil Seed (Sarson, Tarameera, Alsi, Toria) and winter vegetable.

   The wheat being the staple food in the district, area under its cultivation constitutes more than half of the total cropped area under all food grains. Next to wheat, paddy is important cereal crop, its cultivation is becoming so popular that the district accounts for the highest are under paddy cultivation in the state.

   A large majority of cultivators in the district are hardworking small peasant' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s proprietors. They have shown wonderful adaptability in the application of modern technology in the field of agriculture, which has resulted in increased food production. Large number of farmers has their own Tractors and agricultural equipments and they prefer to offer services for various agricultural operations on cash payment basis.  The land holding being not very large and there being sizeable migration from this district to other places.


Table No. 2.4  Agriculture
(A)   Area (000 Hect)   
1   Total area according to village paper   2301
2   Area under Forest   10
3   Net sown   2013
4   Net sown area as % to gross sown area   87
5   Area sown more than once    1929
6   Total cropped area   3942
Source: Statistical Abstract of Punjab 2003


Table No. 2.5
Irrigation
A   Net Irrigated Area(000 Hect)   3942
B   Percentage of Net Irrigated area to net Area Sown    51
C   Gross Irrigated area (000 Hect.)   100
D   Percentage of gross irrigated area to gross cropped Area.   100
E   No. of Tube wells- Energized   13872
1   Electric Operated   30724
Source: Statistical Abstract of Punjab 2003

 2.3.2 Electricity

Amritsar was electrified for the first time in 1916 when the Municipal Committee, Amritsar started generating electricity through Diesel / Steam Processes. However, in 1932-33 Hydro Power was introduced. The Punjab State Electricity Board feeds the whole district.

   The district is a net consumer of electricity as there is no power generating station in the district. However, to meet contingencies some big industrial houses had installed there own Diesel generating sets. District is the second highest consumer of electricity in the state. As per Punjab State Electricity Board and Economic and statistical organization, Punjab in year 2003 there are 5,07,419 house holds out of which 440589 are electrified which shows 86.82% households are electrified.

Table 2.6
Electricity
A   Households using Electricity    24600
B   Percentage to total Households   70
C   Consumption of Power (Million Kw.h)   
1   Agriculture   482.61
2   Industry   430.78
2   Commercial   139.90
4   Domestic   504.87
5   Others   64.25
D   No. of Electric consumer   
1   Industry   16251
2   Agriculture   80869
Source: Statistical Abstract of Punjab 2003

2.3.3 Industry

   Amritsar was not only a leading center of trade in the northwestern part of the continent, but was also famous for its various factories. It occupies a place of pride on industrial map of the state. It has been widely known for its textile, carpets etc. over the centuries. Great progress has been achieved also in various fields of industry in the recent past e.g. manufacturing of engineering goods, electrical appliances.

   There are 1647 registered factories out of which 1529 are working. Out of the registered working factories 49 are in public sector, 1195 are in private sector and 285 belong to section 85 with power factories.

   Some of the present day Industries, those have developed at Amritsar or in the suburbs, fall under the category of large/medium scale industries are (1) Textile, (2) Textile Finishing Industry, (3) Embroidery Industry, (4) Roller Flour Mills, (5) Oil Mills, (6) Wood Screw and Machine Screw Industry, (7) Chemical Industry, (8) Milk Plant, (9) Distilling Industry, (10)Sugar Industry, and some small scale industries which are located in the district are (1) Machine Tools Industry, (2) Agricultural Implements, (3) Cycles and Cycle parts, (4) Sewing Machines and parts, (5) Steel Re-rolling, (6) Non-ferrous Metal Industry (Utensils) (7) Nuts and bolts, (8) Electric Motors, (9) Electric Fans, (10) Glass beads, (11) Cotton Ginning, (12) Hosiery Industry, (13) Thermometer Industry, (14) Radios and Amplifiers, (15) Food Products, (16) Chemical Industry, (17) Lace (Gota weaving) manufacture, (18) Automobile parts, (19) Rubber Goods, (20) Plastic Industry, (21) Musical Instruments, (22) Oils and Perfumes (Annexure-1)



 2.3.4 Transport and Communication

Now days the district of Amritsar is well served by roads and railways. Except for a few pockets, all places in district are connected either by road or rail. Total road length in district is 3804 kilometer. Out of which national highways are 162 kilometers and Provincial highways 3642 kilometers. All these roads are maintained by Public Welfare Department.

   Amritsar district is lucky in this regard as it enjoyed an efficient system of communication for quite some time. As regards facility of roads, there were 78 kilometers of roads per 100 sq. kilometer of area and 152 kilometers of roads per lack of population in the district. Further roads statistics reveal that in 2000-01 roads linked 98.67% of village.

   The important roads in district are as :
Amritsar- Pathankot road
Amritsar - Mehta ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Shri Hargobind Pur Road
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Ramdas ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Dera Baba Nanak ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Gurdaspur Road
 Amritsar - Dera Baba Nanak Road
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Tarn Taran ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" HariKe Road
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Chhabal - Khemkaran Road
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Tarn Taran ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Goindwal Road
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Jandiala ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Goindwal Road
Harike ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Khalra Road
10. Goindwal ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Tarn Taran ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Chhabal ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Goindwal Road and
11. Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Jalandhar Road etc.


There are 5 railway lines situated in the district which are:
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Attrai Branch Railway Line
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Verka ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Dera Baba Nanak Branch Railway Line
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Patti ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Khem Karan Branch Railway Line
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Batala ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Pathankot Branch Railway Line and
Amritsar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Jalandhar ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" Delhi Main Railway Line.

There is one international airport in the district located at Rajasansi. Moreover, there is also dryport in the district.The district has a Doordarshan relay Station at Amritsar, which relays Regional (Jalandhar Doordarshan Station' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s Programme) as well as National Programmes (Delhi Doordarshan Station' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s Programmes).


2.4  DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF DISTRICT

Table No. 2.7 : Demographic Profile
      2001
Population   Total   2175425
   Male   1162761
   Female   1012664
              Rural   Total   995828
   Male   528733
   Female   467095
              Urban   Total   1179597
   Male   634028
   Female   545569
Population As Percentage to Total Population   Rural   46.15
   Urban   53.85
   %age Increase in Population   
0-6 Population   Total   286919
   Male   155091
   Female   131827
               Rural    Total   131982
   Male   71341
   Female   60641
              Urban   Total   154936
   Male   83749
   Female   71186
Sex Ratio   Total   870
   Rural   883
   Urban   860
Sex Ratio(0-6)   Total   850
   Rural   885
   Urban   850
No Of Literates   Total   2175425
   Male   1261187
   Female   914233
              Rural   Total   995828
   Male   448162
   Female   221857
              Urban   Total   1179597
   Male   813025
   Female   92381
SC    Total   735809
   Male   398516
   Female   337293
               Rural   Total   326892
   Male   181804
   Female   145088
             Urban   Total   408917
   Male   216712
   Female   192205
Percentage To Total Population (SC)   Total   33.82



 



         
Chapter 3 Educational Scenario in the
District


Table No. 3.1 LITERACY ANALYSIS

                
DATA ON LITERACY RATES
Name Of The District: Amritsar
S.No.   Name Of The Block   Literacy Rate In Percentage   Rural Female Literacy Rate
      All Communities      
      Male    Female   Total   
1   Ajnala   51.04   40.3   45.99   40.3
2   Chogawan   49.01   38.78   44.25   38.78
3   Harsa Chhina   55.81   46.28   51.32   46.28
4   Jandiala   58.79   49.28   54.28   49.28
5   Majitha   60.00   49.96   55.25   49.96
6   Rayya   64.46   54.65   59.81   54.65
7   Tarsikka   60.84   51.51   56.4   51.51
8   Verka   71.52   60.21   65.86   47.03
   District (Total)   72.6   61.41   67.3   45.64
Statistical department, Amritsar      Year: 2006-07

Above Table  shows area wise / gender wise literacy rates in Amritsar district. Rayya and Valtoha block have highest and lowest literacy rates respectively. Data shows that males are more literate than females in all areas. Over all literacy rate in our district is 67.3%.




 

                            LITERACY ANALYSIS








Table No. 3.2
Comparison Of Literacy Rates
   1991 (%)    2001 (%)   Variation in Literacy Rates
   M   F   Total   M   F   Total   M   F   Total
Rural   57.76   40.51   49.73   67.83   52.69   60.65   10.07   12.18   10.92
Urban   78.77   68.43   73.94   81.84   74.39   78.37   3.07   5.96   4.43
Distt.   65.07   50.10   58.08   72.6   61.3   67.3   7.53   11.20   9.22
U ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" R   21.01   27.92   24.21   14.01   21.70   17.22   7.00   6.22   6.49

Source : Census 1991-2001 (Projected)

Above Table  contains comparison of literacy rates in 1991 and 2001. It reveals that literacy rates have increased both in rural and urban areas with a difference of 10.92 rates in rural areas have decreased to the extent of 7.00% and 6.22%.

   
3.1  STATUS OF EDUCATION

Before the commencement of SSA our system of school education was divided into four levels namely:
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Primary
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Middle
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    High and
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Senior Secondary.
But now these four levels of school education are being reconstructed into two levels:
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Elementary and
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Secondary.

Elementary level consists of first eight classes and secondary level consists of IX-XII classes. This system of reorganization and reconstructing of school education came into effect after March 2004 in Amritsar District. But the whole district does not adopt this system properly and in well manner.

   In our district primary level and SSA are working under the administration of DEO(EE) and Upper Primary and Secondary level under DEO(SE).

   But due to the lack of administrative efforts, interest and co-operation this system is not running well in our district. As mentioned above, SSA and primary level are working under DEO(EE) and Upper Primary level is still working under DEO(SE) which should work under DEO(EE) according to the definition of Elementary.

Amritsar was important and main centre of sikh learning where 300 Gurmukhi schools existed. Also there was not a single mosque, gurduara or a temple where school did not exist. The largest maktaba located in the Khair-Ud-Din mosque in Hall Bazzar,where about 200 pupils were imparted instructions in Koranic studies in Arabic. The largest Gurmukhi school was lacted in Akal Bunga where Bhai Atma Singh taught Adi-Granth to about 100 to 150 students.
    
   The Christian Missionaries did pioneering work in female education. The oldest school in Amritsar is the Alexendra High School, founded by Church Mission Society in 1878. Its admission was restricted to Christians but since 1907 it is open to students of all Castes and Creeds.

   The muslims had 4 schools, 3 of which were managed by Anjuman-E-Islamia founded in 1874. In May 1933 a muslim intermediate college was started near the Hall Gate in MAO High School. The college was upgraded to degree college in 1945. After partition it was taken over by the DAV Management Committee, New Delhi, who started here in a DAV College. The Singh Sabha started some schools at Amritsar in 1890, which are followed by Hindu Sabha High School and DAV High School. Some of the oldest and renowned educational institutions are :

1.   Pandit Baij Nath High School, Amritsar
2.   Bal Mukand Jharti High School, Amritsar
3.   Ram Aashram High School, Amritsar (founded in 1923 by Achraya Sunder Singh)
4.   Alexandra High School, Amritsar
5.   Shrimati Dayawanti Kanya Vidyalaya, Amirtsar
6.   Shri Guru Harkrishan Public School (run by Chief Khalsa Divan Trust)
7.   Sant Singh Sukha Singh Sen. Sec. School
8.   Spring Dale Public School
9.   Various schools and colleges run by SGPC(Shrimani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee).

In colleges:
1.   Khalsa College, Amritsar
2.   Hindu College, Amritsar
3.   Saroop Rani Govt. College for Women, Amritsar
4.   Modern College for Women, Amritsar
5.   Guru Teg Bahagur College for Women, Amritsar
6.   D.A.V.College, Amritsar.

Some main recently opened schools are:

1.   Delhi Public School
2.   Shri Guru Harkrishasn International School
3.   DAV International School
4. Baba Ishar Singh Public School, etc.
Some main recently opened colleges are:
1.   Amritsar college of Engineering, Manawala.
2.   Sant Mangal Singh Engineering College, Guru Sar Satlani Sahib.
3.   Tre-Shatabdi College (run by SGPC)

G.N.D. University is the hallmark of district Amritsar. Amritsar district is self-sufficient in different types of educational facilities. The position of educational institutions as in 2004 is given below:
TABLE No. 3.3
Education Institutions
      
Sr. No.   Govt.& Non Govt.
Educational Institutions   Total Number of Institutions   Total No. of Teachers
1   University   1   471
2    Arts, Science, Commerce, and Home Science Colleges    15   850
3   Engineering, Technology and Architecture Colleges   2   57
4   Medical Colleges (Allopathic only )   2    N.A.
5   Teacher Training Colleges (B.Ed)   3   62
6   Senior Secondary School (10+2 Pattern)   82   
7   High School   103   
8   Middle School   143   
9   Primary School   793   
10   Pre-Primary School   57   57
11   Elementary Teachers Training School J.B.T. (E.T.T.)   1   9
12   Polytechnic   4   134
13   Technical Industrial Art & Craft School   7   182
14   Industrial Training
Institutes   4   N.A.
      Source: Statistical Abstract of Punjab 2004

For providing professional training to the students and teachers there are 4 B.Ed. Colleges, one DIET, one In service training center, 4 arts and craft institutes, 4 Polytechnic and  4 ITI' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s. These educational institutes are run by Govt. /Semi Govt. / different societies, trusts and management committees.

Apart from these there are 2 Engineering Colleges, 2 medical colleges and 2 dental colleges, 1 Ayuervedic, 1 homeopathic college and 2 nursing schools engaged in imparting medical education. To achieve the objectives of universalisation of elementary education under SSA, 139 EGS centers and 50 AIE Centres are operating in 17 educational blocks of the district.














3.1.1  Education Administration

   District school education system organization is shown in the figure given below:


























3.2 DISTRICT INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL TRAINING (DIET)

Draft guidelines for implementing the DIET component were circulated to States in October 1987 and have, together with certain subsequent circulars, formed the basis for its implementation so far.  Till October 1989, Central assistance had been sanctioned under the Scheme for setting up a total of 216 DIETs in the country. In Amritsar District DIET located in VERKA.

3.2.1 Functions

Elementary Teacher Training is being imparted to ETT students by the PSTE branch of the institution. At the beginning the teacher training was given to batch of fifty students. Later this enrollment has been increased to hundred students.

   The duration of the ETT course is 2 years which is further divided in to 4 semesters. Thirty days teaching practice have been given to students of semester 2nd in the different Government Primary Schools and also 30 days teaching practice have been given to students of semester 4th in Government Upper Primary Schools. The educational tours are also being arranged for the students from time to time and co-curricular activities have been done by the institution.

   20 days in-service teacher training has been given to all the teachers of elementary schools and different workshops and seminars are being conducted by the IFCI branch of the institution. Approximately 90% teachers of the district have been trained by the institution during year 2004-05. Now training is imparted by DIET to EGS Volunteers, VEDC ,BRP' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s, BEEO' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s, In-Service ETT Teachers, and Educational Volunteers etc.

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Re: SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
« Reply #4 on: June 14, 2009, 05:15:50 PM »
3.2.2 DIETs:  Mission and Role

' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "To provide academic and resource support at the grass-roots level for the success of the various strategies and programmes being undertaken in the areas of elementary and adult education, with special reference to the following objectives: -
Elementary Education
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Universalisation of Primary/Elementary Education.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Adult Education
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    NLM targets in regard to functional literacy in the 15-35 age group.
 
 3.2.3 Functions of  DIET   
(1)   Training and orientation of the following target groups:-
(i)   Elementary school teachers (both pre-service and in-service education).
(ii)   Head Master, Heads of School Complexes and officers of Education Department up to Block level.
(iii)   Instructors and supervisors of Non-formal and Adult Education (induction level and continuing education)
(iv)   Members of DBE and Village Education Committee (VEDC' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s) Community leaders, youth and other volunteers who wish to work as educational activities.
(v)   Resource persons who will conduct suitable programmes for the target groups mentioned at (I) and (iii) above, at centers other than the DIET.

(2)   Academic and resource support to the elementary and adult education systems in the district in other ways e.g. by

(i)    Extension activities and interaction with the field,
(ii)   provision of services of a resource and learning center for teachers and instructors,
(iii)   development of locally relevant materials teaching aids, evaluation tools etc., and
(iv)   Serving as an evaluation center for elementary school and programmes of NFE/AE.

(3)   Action research and experimentation to deal with specific problems of the district in achieving the objectives in the areas of elementary and adult education.
 3.2.4 Organizational Structure of  DIET

It has the following seven academic branches :-
(1)   Pre-service Teacher Education Branch (PSTE) consisting of faculty members in the ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "Foundations' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    '' area as well as in various school subjects (excluding work Experience).
(2)   Work experience (WE) Branch
(3)   District Resource Unit (DRU) for Adult and Non-formal Education
(4)   In-service Programmes, Field Interaction and Innovation Coordination (IFIC) Branch
(5)   Curriculum, Material Development and Evaluation (CMDE) Branch
(6)   Educational Technology (ET) Branch
(7)   Planning and Management (P&M) Branch

3.2.5   Main programmes and activities which would be organized in a DIET could be listed as follows

(i)   Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme.
(ii)   In-service Programmes of Elementary Teachers, Heads of School Complexes, and officers of Education Department up to block level.
(iii)   Field Interaction (including Extension work).
(iv)   Training programmes for personnel of adult and non-formal education.
(v)   Workshops for development of curricula, teaching learning material, testing and evaluation tools and techniques, low cost teaching aids. Etc.
(vi)   Orientation programmes for members of DBE, VEDCs, community leaders, youth and other educational activities.
(vii)   Field studies action research and experimentation.
  3.3 VEDC

The genesis of the crucial role of the Community participation especially in the educational development can be better understood with the help of National Policy on Education (NPE 1986) and revised Programme of Action (POA 1992). These two-policy document emphasized the importance and management of Education at all levels and involving people in the process. It implies democratic participation of elected representatives of people in decision making at the district, sub-district and panchayat levels. In order to give strong foundations to take new administrators of Panchayat Raj Institution (PRTs) two amendments called the 73rd and 74th Amendments once made in the constitution of India in the year 1992. Under these Constitutional Amendments panchayats will be formed for a village 01 a group of villages. Panchayats will have elected representatives. Besides, each panchayat may constitute a village. Education Committee (VEC) which would be responsible for administration of the delegated programmes in the field of education at the village level. The major responsibility of the VEC would be operationalisation of micro level planning and school mapping in the village through systematic house to house survey and periodic discussion with the parents. It would be endeavor of the VEC that every child in every family participates in Primary education. Participation of the Community through village Education Committee (VEC) to improve the quality of education provisioning infrastructure facilities by mobilizing community support, co-coordinating activities of schools and solving problems is very much needed.
 

3.3.1 Organizational Structure of VEDC



















3.3.2  Role, Responsibility and Powers of VEDC

' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Social mobilisation in support of education.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Community support for adequate school infrastructure and its maintenance.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Palnning for educational needs of the village.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Overseeing the school education management.

 3.3.3 Members of VEDC

1.   Head master (As a Head)            Secratory
2.   Two members of Panchayat            Member
   (One lady member compuslary)
3.   Two members from PTA            Member
   (One lady member compuslary)
4.   Exserviceman                  Member
5.   Retired Teacher of Education Dept.         Member
6.   N.R.I. or Donaters               Member
        Total member   =                        8 (Including Secratory)

The chairman of the committee is elected by only members of VEDC, except member secratory.

Functions of the VEDC are more of cooperative, develpomental and promotional nature than supervisory. These include Planning for basic education in the village, awareness building, mobilising community resources, maintenance of class-room, proper utilization of the funds placed at the disposal of VEDC, distribution of TLM and other incentives.

 3.4 EDUCATION GURANTEE SCHEME (EGS) 

       The Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) is a part of the Sarva Shiksha Abhhiyan framework. This component is more important than others ,as one of the major objectives of the SSA is to bring all children in school by 2003 either through formal schools or Education Guarantee Centres, Alternative Schools, back to school camps, etc. can be achieved through it. Acoording to the norms of SSA, EGS centers (primary level ) should be set up in unserved habitations where no school exists within a radius of 1 Km  and at least 15 children in the age group of 6-14 who are not going to schools, are availabe.
Table No. 3.5 Existing EGS Centres in Amritsar District

S.NO   Name of Block   No. of Existing EGS Centres
1   Ajnala   29
2   Chogawan   53
3   Hasha Chhina   5
4   Jandiala Guru   14
5   Majitha   7
6   Rayya   2
7   Tarsika   4
8   Verka   25
   Total   139
   

     



Existing EGS Centres in Amritsar District

The interventions for out of school children under SSA mainly includes, setting up formal schools or education guarantee centre in un-served habitations, so that education can be provided to them. The major groups that constitute out of school children comprise never enrolled children, and dropouts which includes children from SC and ST communities, working children and girls, especially girls , who are deprived of education owing to various factors such as distance to schools, eespecially at the upper primary level, domestic chores etc.
      
In District Amritsar there were 4000 out of school & 4000 DUC children on 31 January 2007.  At present 137 EGS centres and 50 AIE Centres are running in the District covering 5500 children  and 149 EGS Volunteers, 58 AIE Volunteers have been engaged.
                                                   .
3.5  MID DAY MEAL SCHEME

       National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education ( commonly known as the Mid-Day Meal Scheme ) was launched as a Centrally sponsored Scheme on 15th August 1995 and laterly in June-July,2004 entitled ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education, 2004 (NPSPE, 2004) ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  ".
      Objectives of the revised Scheme are :
i)   To boost universalisation of primary Education (classes I-V) by improving enrolment, attendance, retention, and learning levels of children, especially those belonging to disadvantaged sections.
ii)   To improve nutritional status of students of primary stage, and
iii)   To provide nutritional support to students of primary stage in drought affected areas during summer vacation also.

A programme of providing Mid-Day Meal in Schools can be expected to help in UEE in the following ways:-
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    By improving enrolment and regularity of attendance.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    By reducing drop-out, and
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    By improving children' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s level of learning and self -esteem

3.6  INTEGRATED EDUCATION FOR DISABLED (IED)

SSA focuses on increasing access, enrolment and retention of all children as well as improving the quality of education. The objective of SSA can be realized only, if all children including these with special needs (CWSN) are included under the sphere of elementary education.












Chapter 4 Process of Plan Formulation

Introduction:-
The success of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will depend upon the quality of the community based planning process. It is decentralized to the habitation level rather than a village as unit in planning.
4.1 Constitution of planning team at various levels:-
In SSA for the better implementation of its activities planning Teams are constituted at various levels  such as VEDC at village level, BLEC at Block level and DLEC at district level.
4.2 Village Education Committee:-
The constitution of VEDC is as follows to look after the implementation of SSA at village/school level.
4.2.1 Main Functions of VEDC are as follows:-
- Assisting to enhance the enrollment and retention in the school concern and reducing the dropout ands non starters in the area.
-  Mobilizing the community for the welfare and development of the School.
-  Assisting the teachers to solve their school related local problems.
-  Appointing the PTA teachers to the schools.-
 4.3 Block Level Education Committee:-
The constitution of BEC is as follows to look after the implementation of SSA of Block Level. It looks after the effective implementation of SSA in various aspects at Block Level.

4.3.1 Function of BLEC:-
1. Block Level plan formulation, implementation and monitoring of the programme.
2. Implementing approved plan activities as per the calendar.
3. Monitoring programme implementation through periodical reviews, visits to school and CRCS.
a) Enrolment and retention data school wise.
b) Review achievement levels schools wise.
c) Review of functioning of AIS/EGS Schools.
4. Organizing awareness campaigns, Block Level functions.
5. Monitoring the proper distribution of various incentives to children.
6. Securing the co-ordination and co-operation of other agencies like NGOs, self help groups, Government Departments etc.
7. Operating joint account of the Chairman and Member Secretary as necessitated.

4.4 District level Education Committee
The District level Education Committee is formed under the Chairmanship of the District Collector . This Committee looks AFTER the better implementation of SSA Scheme activities in 16 Blocks of the district
4.4.1 Roles and Responsibilities of DLEC are as Follows:
1    District Committees are responsible for planning, implementation and monitoring the SSA programme in the Districts.
2   Supervising the training programmes at the district and blocks and assessing the impact of training.
3   conduct of research activities both formal and action research through SSA personnel and research scholars in the districts.
4.   To develop the plans as per the procedure laid down in SSA Frame work.


Table No. 4.1
Meetings held with date given: Pre-plan Activities at Different Levels:
S.No.   Activity   Date   District/Block/School Level   Objectives Discussed
1   AWP & Budget & 23 Tables(2007-08   16-12-2006   District   Detailed information about AWP & B & 23 Tables was given to all BEEO' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s
2   Table No.1,2 & 3    26-12-2006   District   Consulted officials of Statistical Department for Filling Table 1,2 & 3
3   Role  of  Core Planning teams    02-01-2007   District   Discussion on the Role of Core planning Teams at various Levels with BEEO' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s & BRP' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s
4   DISE    19-01-2007   District   To collect all the information of  school data
5   School Mapping Exercise   23-01-2007   School   This exercise is done by teachers to identify the real need of Primary schools and up gradation.
6   School Development plan   25-01-2007   School   School needs were assessed through Micro level Planning
7   Community level Participation    05-02-2007   Block   VEDC meetings were  held at cluster level in all blocks
 

4.5  Participatory nature of the Process:
The planning process has to be participatory in nature as this type of planning not only creates a sense of ownership but also creates the capacity building of personnel at various levels. The plan should be local-specific.

 4.5.1 Mechanism of interaction with community, for the enhancement of target Groups:
Interaction with community is necessary for the upliftment of target Groups. Mobilization activities and extensive visit of planning teams to every Habitation will also be carried out. Such interactions not only provide with an opportunity to be familiar with the problems of target groups but also molding the opinions of communities.
4.5.2 Consultative meetings conducted:
The consultative meetings with the officials at block and district level would help the core teams in formulating strategies to the problems. These meetings would also help in bringing about ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "Convergence' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    '' among various interventions. Documentation of consultative meetings would enable the persons at all levels to know about the processes

4.6 Data needed and collection of Data:
SSA Framework clearly states, ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "It is mandatory to track the progress of every child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    '' . As such, it is essential to gather information about children up to the age of 14 years enrolled, never enrolled, out of school children, studying in private sector schools. Then only we can assess educational need.
The following information has to be invariably collected:
1.   Updated population figure of the district: Urban and Rural, gender wise, Block wise and Social Wise.
2.   Literacy rate: gender wise, block wise, special focus groups wise.
3.   Updated population figures of target groups: age wise, gender wise, rural and urban. Projected population figures for 10 years.
4.   Educational statistic(indicators)
5.   Number of Schools (management wise), formal, alternative and ECE Centers.
6.   Status of teacher' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s position cadre wise number of teachers.
7.   School infrastructure details and needed.
8.   Welfare measures in schools.
9.   District Educational Profile.


 
CHAPTER 5 : PROGRESS OVERVIEW
A household survey was conducted in District Amritsar in 2001-02 and important and necessary data was procured for proper planning and implementation of the project. On the basis of this data a policy of decentralize school planning was adopted and school gradation activities were conducted and a plan was formulated at cluster, block and district level to make available the necessary basic facilities to schools with the involvement and participation of the community.

On the basis of this plan up to March 2007, District Amritsar received a sum of Rs.205056558/- Lacs under various components, out of which Rs. 171840437/- Lacs were distributed among the various components and Rs.21020195/- Lacs have been utilized. The components wise details regarding the progress made under SSA up to 31 December are given in the following PARAS: -
 
 5.1 CIVIL  WORKS


Sarav Shiksha Scheme has been launched by Govt. of India for the upliftment of Govt. Primary and Upper-Primary Schools in the Country. Various Components have been successfully working under this scheme. The major aim of this scheme is the universalisation of Elementary Education to all the children. To strengthen this aim different types of Grant/Funds have been released every year for various components. Civil Works is one of the Major Components of this Schemes Crores of Rupees have been received every year for the betterment and speedly improvement of Govt. Primary as well as Upper-Primary Schools. It plays vital role especially in the retaining of infrastructure in the schools. Because provision of adequate infrastructure helps in retaining the children in the school as well as creates deep interest in the study. Govt.School Building which were previously in much distorted condition are now the improved ones. Additional Classrooms with Verandahs and Sanitation Blocks separately both for Boys and Girls have been constructed with this Grant. With the help of this Grant Block Resource Centers (BRC) and Cluster Resource Centers (CRC) have been constructed. These prove to be fruitful for training purposes and Seminars etc. The construction work under this component is being run with the participation of the local community creating a child friendly school environment and ensuring the quality of construction work, are the three basic features of this component under SSA. District Resource Person (DRP) as well Block Resource persons (BRP) have been deputed to ensure the quality as well as the quantity  of above said work.
Progress Overview
Table. No. 5.1
Physical
S. No.   Activities   Unit Cost (in lacs)   Planned up to 31 December,2006   Completed   In progress
   Not taken up
1.   BRC   6.00   16   14   2   0
2.   CRC   2.00   40   40   0   0
3.   New School Building / Branch Schools   3.00   6   0   0   6
4.   Building Less School   3.00   4   3   1   0
5.   Additional Class Rooms Primary   1.20   412   395   17   0
6.   Additional Class Rooms Upper Primary   1.20   132   130   2   0
7.   Additional Class Rooms Primary   1.70   336   51   180   105
8.   Additional Class Rooms Upper Primary   1.70   504   171   184   149
9.   Toilet & Drinking Water(primary & upper primary)   0.35   1831   1821   10   0
10.   Headmaster Room (UP)   1.20   25   22   3   0
      

 5.1.1 BRC Buildings


According to above table up to 31 December 2006, grant for 16 BRC Building have been received out of which 14  are completed and 2 are in progress.

 5.1.2 CRC Buildings

According to the Table, grant for 40 CRC buildings have been received up to 31 December 2006, and the target has been achieved till date.

 

Block : Amritsar -1 Govt. Elementary School Kot Baba Deep Singh (B)
Cluster Resource Centre

5.1.3   Building Less School


Grant for Four Buildingless schools have received out of which three are completedand yet one is not taken up.

 5.1.4   Additional Classrooms


Grant for 412 Additional Classrooms Primary and 132 Upper-Primary @ 1.20 have been sanctioned out of which 395 in primary  and 130 Upper-Primary Rooms are completed. Remaining are in Progress. Grant of 336 Additional Classrooms for Primary and 504 Upper-Primary Additional Classrooms @ 1.70 have been sanctioned out of which 51 for Primary and 151 UP Rooms are completed respectively. 180 and 184 are in Progress and 105 and 149 Rooms have yet not been taken up.
 
 Block : Amritsar 2    School Name : GES Chatiwind      Additional classroom


5.1.5  Sanitary Blocks & Drinking Water Facilities

Under sanitary blocks total no. of units grant has been received for primary and upper primary is 1831 respectively till date. Out of which 1821 units have been completed for primary and upper primary respectively. Rests of units are in progress.
 
Block : Chogawan      School Name: GES Jajje   
 5.1.6 Branch School Buildings

Grant of  Branch Schools has been received. This grant has been utilized by re-allocation in March 2006 for civil works.
5.1.7 New School Building :-
Grant of new School Building has been received Rs.2100000/- during financial Year 2006-07 and Rs.2100000/- has been disbursed.

5.1.7 Kitchen Shed for MDM :-
Grant of Kitchen Shed for MDM has been received Rs.390000/- during financial Year 2006-07 and Rs.390000/- has been disbursed.

 
5.1.8 BALA SCHEME :-
Bala scheme  known as  Building as Learning Aid is also a part of Civil Works Component. Selected one hundred School have been given a grant of Rs. 2000/- per school for the implementation of this scheme. Beyond any doubt, this scheme proves very helpful in arousing keen interest, sense of creativity, analytical sense, mental ability, day to day awareness and above all interest for study and learning the new creations in the field of education. In their free time students especially the younger ones make themselves busy in doing the sums and getting knowledge from the aids which are engraved on the walls, pillars and flooring of the institution. In short, such type of schemes should be continue in the interest of the learner and adequate Grants must be released for the above said purpose. Rs. 200000/- lacs has been received and the same amount will be disbursed.
5.2 MAINTENANCE & REPAIR GRANT

The scarcity of funds for repair & maintenance of schools building had been a regular feature of the school. Most of the schools remain unable to spare funds for the electrical, furniture or any other type of repair. Under this component a Rs.192.7 Lacs and Rs.102.55    Lacs were received during the year 2002-03 and 2003-04 respectively, and Rs. 177.95 Lacs has been disbursed and in the FY 2005-06 up to 31-12-2005 Rs.57.40 Lacs. have been disbursed to primary and upper primary schools.




 5.3 SCHOOL GRANT

This grant is utilized for the replacement of non-functional items or to meet any other needs of the school such as maintenance of black board, writing of display board, mottos, stationery etc. Total grant of Rs. 157.84 Lacs was received during 2002-03,2003-04,2004-05 & 2005-06 and Rs.146.30 Lacs disbursed among primary and upper primary schools.
5.4  TEACHER GRANT

Teaching and learning techniques have a significant role in making the teaching process more effective and attractive. Innovative teaching aid modals and projects play significant role in imparting personal experiences to the students. Till now there was no direct fund for teaching aids in the schools and the teachers had no authority to seek such funds from the schools. But now sum of Rs. 500/- is granted to each elementary teacher for this purpose. Grant of Rs. 174.86 Lacs has been received for the year 2002-03, 2003-04, 2004-05 and 2005-06 and Rs. 141.715 Lacs has been disbursed to elementary teachers (primary & upper primary) for this purpose.




5.5 TEACHER TRAINING

In Service Training Centre, Amritsar and DIET are organizing different type of camps and seminars. After getting this training the teachers are creating well teaching aids and giving education to the children in the better way. The training programme has been identified on the basis of jobs and need analysis in order to improve quality and efficiency of school education. Teacher and heads acquire professional competency and commitment if they desire to perform their multiple tasks.

Apart from this a 20 days training is being given to the teachers so as to train them in adopting new techniques and interventions for better teaching activities. The task of giving training to the teachers up to the primary level is being done by DIET VERKA and training to the upper primary teachers is being imparted by In Service Training Center Amritsar. For this component separate funds of Rs.280.168 Lacs for years 2002-03 and 2003-04 have been released for imparting training to teachers which are being utilized by DIET at its own level, through centre, Block and cluster levels and also at In-service Training Centre Level. Rs.4338343/- received during 1-04-2006 to  31-01-2007 and Rs., 14253002.45/- was balance of previous year on 01-04-2006. Expenditure upto 31-01-2007 on the training of teachers, VEDC, Research and evaluation, EGS and EV' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s. is Rs.4496314/-. 287 Teaches in the upper primary were imparted teacher training for twenty days by Govt. In-service training centres.

5.6  EGS CENTERS AND ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS

The focus of this scheme is on ensuring participation of all ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "out of school' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    '' children including children living in small, un served habitations and other categories of children, migrating children, street children, adolescent girls, children of sex workers etc. who are out of school. This scheme provided access to schooling for such children. Keeping this objective in mind a provision of EGS centers and Alternative Schools have also been made to enroll the children belonging to 6 ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''  '  ''' '   ''  '" 14 age group.

Financial

During 2003-04, 2004-05 and 2005-06 under this component Rs.140.095 Lacs were received. During Financial Year 2006-07 a Sum of Rs.7503064/- eceived and  a sum of Rs.7002700/- was disbursed.


Physical

In District Amritsar, there were 4000  on 31 December 2006.  At present 139 EGS centres and 50 AIE are running in the District covering 5500 children  and 149 EGS Volunteers and 58 AIE Volunteers have been engaged.

5.7  RESEARCH AND EVALUATION

Financial :

Another sum of Rs.1400/- school per school per year has been allocated to schools against this component. Under this component a pool of resource persons at national, state, District, Sub- District level for effective field based monitoring providing travel grant and very modest honorarium (as per state specific norm) to resource person for monitoring, providing regular generation of community based data, under taking research activities, setting up special task force for low female literacy district and for monitoring of girls SC/ST. During 2002-03 and 2003-04, Rs.55.377 received and the whole amount has been disbursed. Rs. 312800/- received for research and evaluation in the financial year 2006-07 but Expenditure is nil because no Work was done on research and evaluation.
Physical:
-   Activity Based Learning introduced in 10 primary schools on pilot basis.
-   Activity based learning Kit developed and introduced in these schools. Games in the kit are designed to teach children the fundamentals of English and math through activity based techniques. By employing this method, children learn by doing and while having fun, resulting in clarity of concepts as well as greater retention.
-   School readiness kit also introduced in these schools.
-   Math lab kit introduced to make math concepts crystal clear.
-   Attractive jhoolas installed with help of community participation in these schools.
-   Events of historical significance celebrated in these schools to give children a feel of our rich cultural heritage, in the school setting.
-   Scheme has received excellent response from the community and added a new zest towards education in the community and has injected new life in the selected primary schools of the state, which are fast becoming a role model for others to emulate.
-   More schools to be covered under the scheme this year.
 5.8 IED (INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR THE DISABLED)

If we wish to Universalize Elementary Education (UEE), inclusion of children with special needs is a pressing imperative.  Access to education is a right of every child. The first few years of a child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s life are the most crucial. The children learn about themselves and the world around them. Their learning starts before they even step into a regular school. But for the hearing and speech impaired and mentally challenged children, the experience of growing and learning can be painful and frustrating; even more so, when the disabled child comes from an environment where survival is an everyday struggle and two square meals a day, an uncertainty. Coming from deprived families, their disability is further compounded by malnutrition and parental ignorance.
The goal of UEE cannot be achieved by denying education to these children. Hence, children with special needs should also be brought into the fold of meaningful learning. Awareness regarding how to deal with special need children are also necessary for parents.

 Financial      

Total budget received under this activity during the financial year 2002-03 was 44.736 lacs, which were spilled over to the next financial year 2003-04 because no activity was held during the financial year 2002-03. Out of the approved budget, Rs.56686.00 has been utilized for this activity during the financial year 2004-05 and remaining part of the budget has been reallocated in civil works in March 2005. During Financial Year 2006-07 a Sum of Rs. 1161584/- Lacs received and  a sum of Rs. 383896/- Lacs has been disbursed for this purposeand Rs. 174976/- was utilized during this current financial year..

Physical
-  A survey was conducted by IERT' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s upto January 2007.
-   Total number of 4611 CWSN identified .
-   In Year 2005-06, 3 distribution and fitment camps organized in the Amritsar district. 2279 children given assistive aids and appliances like tricycles, wheelchairs, crutches, Braille slates, canes, hearing aids, artificial limbs and calipers, etc.
-   In Year. 2006-07 second phase of identification and assessment camps held in Amritsar District at the block level. A total of 6 camps held and 2279 CWSN identified.
-   Mass media campaign organized to bring about attitudinal change towards CWSN while at the same time, motivate the children and parents to join school.
-   Ramps were constructed in all primary and upper primary schools to provide easy access and an enabling environment to CWSN.

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Re: SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
« Reply #5 on: June 14, 2009, 05:16:33 PM »
5.9  FREE TEXT BOOKS To Non Sc Girls

 
The literacy figures of the district indicate very clearly that there is a wide gap in the female and male literacy rates.  The literacy rate in the females is very low at 61.41 in comparison to males. Rural female literacy rate is further very low at 45.64 as comparison to males as well as with district female literacy rate. To fill this gap special facilities have been introduced to attract and encourage the girl students to come into the fold of schooling. A scheme has been launched to provide free textbooks to the girls belonging to the general category. The department of Social Welfare Punjab is already providing free textbooks to SC/BC girls.
 Financial
In the year 2003-04 total budget allotted on free textbooks was 78.3768 lacs. This amount was given to the P.S.E.B. and against it books worth Rs.71.1126 lacs were received. Balance amount of Rs. 7.2642 lacs is yet to be recovered from P.S.E.B.  During that period these books were delivered to 57969 students (Non SC girls and EGS students) and during 2005-06 61958 Children benefited under Free Text Books Scheme. 
       

Physical

Department of Welfare is providing free school textbooks to SC Students. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is covering Non SC Girls of Class Ist to 8th. In addition free textbooks are also being provided to the students of EGS Centers. In the year 2003-04, total number of books distributed among 36482 and 21487 students of primary and upper primary schools were 8, 02,604 and 6, 23,123 respectively and in the year 2004-05 total number of books distributed among students of primary, upper primary schools and EGS were 63278, 141207 and 9286 respectively.7200 Students covered under EGS Scheme, 150905 students were distributed with workbooks.                   
   

















CHAPTER 6 : PROBLEMS   AND  ISSUES

E
ach District, Block, and school has their own problems. If we begin to overlook the problems, then each area provides a gloomy picture. A wide array of problems comes to the front position when we try to achieve the target of elementary education. Out of these, a few major issues are the following, which require to be dealt with quite seriously so that the aim of "Elementary education for all" can be fulfilled. 
   For achieving this target, the biggest problem is the shortage of teaching staff. In the schools we provide good quality of infrastructure and the education friendly environment. we create is of no value in the absence of trained and qualified teaching staff. The other issues that cause a problem in the daily life are the following:

 6.1 VEDC' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s PROBLEMS

1.   Participation of VEDC members in construction of civil works and maintenance of school is not fully satisfactory.
2.   Most of the members of the VEDC are illiterate and there is substantial political and economic interference.
3.   Most of the meetings of VEDC, Panchayat or village people have concluded that the main problem is the lack of teaching staff and inappropriate burden of non-teaching activities on the teachers.
4.   Disagreements between some Panchayats and VEDCs.
5.   Need of more meetings with the VEDC.



 6.2 CIVIL WORKS PROBLEMS
1. Proper training is not given to the teachers in regard of using of grants and maintenance of records i.e. cash book, stock register etc
2. Non availability of permanent teachers in schools
3. Some times allotted grant is not enough to meet with the changing expenses.
4. Existing unit cost is not sufficient to meet the expenses of civil works so it should be updated.
6. Absence of any Resource person in the CRC
7. Absence of any watchman or caretaker etc. in the CRC
8. Lack of electricity in the villages.

6.3  TEACHERS  & DROP OUT CHILDREN RELATED PROBLEMS
1.   More than the required no. of teachers are present in the cities and they have been at the same place for the last 20-22 years.
2.   Whatever seminars are held by DIET, the information regarding such seminars is provided to the teachers only 1 day in advance. Those schools, which have only 1 teacher, remain unattended during training days and the studies of the children suffer.
3.   The resource people who provide training are not fully trained. The resource persons should be appointed under some special team.
4.   Due to poverty in villages parents go out for odd jobs whereas the girl child either takes care of her younger siblings or does the household chores.
5.   There is lack of dedication among the teachers.
6.   Mission mode of teaching is somewhere missing.
7.   Teachers are involved in non-teaching duties such as conducting elections, collecting census data, making of voter ID cards etc. Thus, they get less time to pay attention to there school.

6.4   PRIMARY & UPPER PRIMARY SCHOOL RELATED PROBLEMS
1.   In Every Upper Primary, High and Secondary Schools there is a need of Educational and Vocational Guidance corner.
2.   Amritsar is one of the border area district and most of the posts are vacant in the schools lying in this area. Most of the teachers  prefer to work in the urban schools.
3.   Awareness regarding Aids, Environmental Problems and Population Education is needed.

4.   In the primary schools, because no steps are being taken up by the state govt. to fill the vacant seats, parents send their children to the private schools (mainly shop like) opened up in the villages.
5.   Review of Syllabus every Year required to make the Educational System time based.
6.   There is lack of education in the govt. schools for children in the age group of 3 to 5 yrs. Although the Anganwari Centers are present in the villages but these Centers are unable to provide adequate knowledge to the children of age group 3 to 5 years. Moreover, the environment and infrastructure required is also not present. Whereas in the private schools, special attention is paid to this matter. Thus, those children who once get admitted to such private schools continue their studies in these schools only.
7.   Firstly, there is shortage of teachers in the primary schools and secondly, they are burdened with other non-teaching responsibilities. Further, there is lack of education related facilities in such schools. SSA provides facilities like water and sanitation but the absence of any watchman to take care of the school infrastructure and for keeping the premises clean is another deterrent in maintaining an education friendly environment in the schools.
8.   Centre schools in the district do not have any permanent Centre Head Teachers.
9.   The curriculum provided at the primary level is either higher or lower than the appropriate one for the children. The course does not have any workbook curriculum and is only subjective. The subjects of General Knowledge and the like should be included.
10.   Most of the primary and some of the upper primary schools suffer acute shortage of furniture whereas such basic facilities are adequately provided to children in the private schools. Thus, there is decline in the presence of students in govt. schools.

   There is lack of proper infrastructural facilities in our schools. Most of the rural schools do not have proper sitting arrangement (desk) for students.

a.   Our schools do not have modern equipments like computers and audio visual aids, which can help to raise the performance level of students of govt. schools.
b.   Our schools also do not have proper playgrounds to encourage the students to take part in various games.

c.   Increasing number of shop like private schools has also effected enrolment in govt. schools. Parents prefer to send their children in private schools. This trend should be stopped and faith of community in govt. schools should be regained.

6.5  MID DAY MEALS PROBLEMS
1.   Kitchen and store should be constructed for the proper preparation of mid-day meal in each primary school.
2.   There should be separate arrangement for the preparation of the mid day meal.
3.   Dinning Rooms/Hall for Mid-Day Meal.
 6.6 IED PROBLEMS
1.   These children hesitate to attend the school due to psychological barrier. Their parents are also frustrated and often unconscious of the prospective of their children.
2.   The main problem is lack of attentiveness on how the child can be helped and the required steps to be followed for his or her betterment in education and in society.
3.   Lack of infrastructure is the major hurdle faced in their rehabilitation. Children suffering from severe forms of disability need special care, attention and education. However, special teachers are few and mostly unavailable in rural areas.
4.   Even the medical assessment of such children is sometimes not possible at the local level. Most Disabled children are referred to far-off hospitals, which are beyond the reach of most poor parents.





6.7 Remedial Coaching Problems

A) The time of remedial Coaching is after the School hours. In winters the closing time of the Schools is 3:45 PM. The students cannot sit for such a long time.
B) The honorarium given to the Volunteers is very low.
C) The  tenure of Remedial Coaching is only for 3 months. 

 6.8 OVERALL PROBLEMS

a.   There is variation in the number of ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' '   ''  '"Out of School' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''children due to migrant labour. Children of such labour do not get enrolled.
b.   Absence of Education Research Board at the District level.
c.   Lack of support from the community.
d.   The free textbooks facility is provided only to girls whereas in some areas even boys are in need of such books as they come from families living below the poverty line.
e.   In the rural, especially in the border area and the slum areas of the cities, people are very poor and thus their children cannot afford to buy stationery and other educations related material and thus are hesitant to go to the school.
f.   Most of the ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' '   ''  '"out of school' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''children do not have an education friendly atmosphere their homes because their parents are also illiterate.
g.   Except the SSA, if any other Govt. department allots certain duties to the teachers, then no alternative arrangement is made in place of the occupied teachers. Various jobs like literacy census duty, rechecking of vote list etc. ranging for a time period of one month or one year allotted to the teachers.
h.   Due to these duties, there is shortage of teaching staff in the schools, which inhibits the people from sending their children to Govt. schools.
i.   Timely inspection of Govt. schools is not done and the teaching aspect is generally overlooked. Inspection in the Border areas Schools is almost nil.
j.   Apart from the rights of the teachers, their duties also need to be analyzed.
k.   The attitude of the print media towards the field of education has always been very negative. A lot is written in the newspaper without adequate knowledge of the correct facts.
l.   Special seminars should be organized at the cluster level to motivate the teachers.
m.   The number of residential schools in the district is almost negligible.
n.   The lack of teaching staff should be provided for and the closed schools should be reported.
o.   Textbooks to students enrolled in government school are not provided at the proper time. These are provided after 3 or 4 months of the starting of session.
p.   Children studying in Govt. Schools mostly came from Deprived section of society. Main barriers in their studies that their parents are illiterate and they cannot support their children in study affairs.
q.   Special Seminars may be conducted to Educate parents with the help of DIET' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''and GIST' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s.
r.   To make the Schools attractive participation from social organization, religious organizations, NRI' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s and society should be stressed.


















CHAPTER 7: STRATEGIES AND INTERVENTIONS
T

he district plan needs to identify strategies and to set targets in a phased manner. The SSA is   a time based programme to ensure a 7 to 10 years to ensure universilation of elementary education by 2010. To fulfill the objectives of universilation of elementary education ,the strategies and interventions are required which are based on the surveys conducted at village & block level. It is essential to frame strategies and for that targets are set for the planning period. It is very important to identify strategies for all intervening years also. The following are the proposed activities that should be executed in the year 2006-07 according to the problems and issues identify in previous chapter of AWP & B.
7.1 CIVIL WORKS
While analyzing the data of DISE & O/O DEO(E.E),the following needs and requirements are identified and the proposals are given below.
1.   100 additional class rooms(primary) are proposed to construct.
2.   139 Additional class rooms(upper primary) are proposed to construct
3.   75 Head master rooms are proposed to construct
4.   67 CRC are proposed to construct
5.   25 Unsafe Buildings are proposed to construct
6.   693 kitchen shed are proposed for MID DAY Meal
7.   81730 per square meter running feet Verandas  are proposed to    construct
8.    880 Schools are proposed for Bala Scheme.
9. 126623 per square meter running feet Boundary Wall  are proposed to construct.
Costing for Civil Works for  the year 2007-08




S.No.   Activities   Unit Cost    Physical    Amount in Lacs
1   CRC   2 Lac   67   134
2   Additional Class Room (Pry)   1.70 Lac   100   170
3    Additional Class Room (U/ Pry)    1.70 Lac   139   236.3
4   Head Master Room   1.20 Lac   75   90
5   Bala Scheme    2000   880   17.6
6   Kitchen Shed   65000   693   450.45
7   Varanda   ---------   81730 sq feet   163.46
8   Boundary Wall   ----------   126623 Running  feet   569.8035
9   Major Repair (Pry)   ----------   ----------   17.58515
10   Major Repair U/Pry)   ----------   ---------   6.72816



* List of Civil Works Requirement are attached after the 19 tables.
We will use supervision and Monitoring cost @3% of the total Budget of  Civil Works.


7.2 EGS centers


To achieve the targets under SSA to educate the all out of school children. In district Amritsar 60 AIE Centers are proposed for the year 2007-08.The target is to admit  around 2400 out of school children in these centers. At present 139 EGS centers and 50 AIE Centers  are running in the District covering 5500 children and in these Centres,149 EGS Volunteers have been engaged and 58 AIE Volunteers are engaged. These Centers help in 100% literacy rate and provided the employment to young youth.
No EGS Centers is proposed to be upgraded in regular School due to Non-availability of Land.

       The Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) is a part of the Sarva Shiksha Abhhiyan framework. This component is more important than others ,as one of the major objectives of the SSA is to bring all children in school by 2003 either through formal schools or Education Guarantee Centres, Alternative Schools, back to school camps, etc. can be achieved through it.

We will provide teaching learning material  to existing education volunteers as well as to new education volunteers, also  we will provide TLM kits to new Centers and Educational Kits to all centers, uniforms, footwears,Health kit, Scolarship etc. will also be provided to each children.








Costing for EGS  centres for  the year 2006-07
                  
Number of Children  to be covered in EGS Centres   4237
   
Number of EGS/AIE Centre       139      
Number of Education Voluneers       159   
                  
S.No.   Activities   Unit Cost    Number    Amount in Lacs      
1   Honorarium for Evs for 12 month
10+2 Qualification
Graduate or above   2000
2500   142
11   34008000
330000      
2   Training of education volunteers Rs 70/- per day for 12 working days    840   153   128520      
3   Text book / work book @150 per learner    150   4237   660000      
4   Stipend Rs 20 per month per learner    240   4237   1056000      
5   Contingency for the centre per year   500   135   69500      
6   School bag , stationary Pensils , Pensilbox, Eraser etc. Rs 200 per learner    200   4237   880000      
     7   Co-curricular activities         66940
      
   Total         6754000      



Costing for  AIE Center  for the year 2007-08
            
Number of Children  to be covered in AIE Centres   3700   
Number of AIE Centres   110   
Number of Education Volunteers    128   
            
S.No.   Activities   Unit Cost in Lacs   Number    Amount in Lacs
1   Honorarium for Evs for 12 month
10+2 Qualification
Graduate or above   

2000
2500   

114
14   

2736000
420000
2   AIE Kit For New Centres   2000   60   120000
3   Training of Education Volunteer @ 70/- Per day for Twelve working days   840   128   107520
4   Text Books/Workbook @ Rs.150/- per learner
   150   3700   555000
   Health @ 280/- Per learner   280   3700   1036000
5   Contingency @ 500/- per learner per centre   500   3700   55000
6   Stationary and Pen @ Rs.30/- per month per learner   360   3700   1332000
 7   Stipened @ 20 per  month per learner   240   3700   88000
8   Uniform, Footwear, Sweater etc @ 525/- per learner   525   3700   1942500
9   School Bag,Pencil,Pencil Box, Eraser etc @ 100/- Per learner   525   3700   370000
10   Rent @ Rs.1000/- per centre   12000   20   240000
11   Co-curricular activities          1297980/-
   Total         1,11,00,000/-




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Re: SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
« Reply #6 on: June 14, 2009, 05:17:39 PM »
7.3 Free Text Books
SSA has been giving  free text book to Non SC girls every year from Ist to 8th class. The SC boys and girls also getting free text books from social welfare department. It helps in reducing the drop out rate of girl students. In rural area the girl student mainly left the school without completing their elementary education due to poverty. Therefore under SSA it is Proposed to give free text book to 55787 Non SC girl students in 2006-07 & also It is proposed to give work books to 194517 Students in 2006-07. Proposed to give Free Text Books to all Girls and Boys from First Standard to eight .
Budget Proposal for the Text Books
S.No.   Category   No. of Students    Cost Per Unit   Total Cost
1.   Non SC girls (p)   15094   110   1660340
2.   Non SC girls (UP Pry)   23466   110   2581260
3.   Non SC Boys (Pry)    16983   110   1868130
4.   Non SC Boys (UP Pry)   26119   110   2873900
   TOTAL    81662      8982820





Budget Proposed for Free Work Books
S.No.   Category   No. of Students    Cost Per Unit   Total Cost
1.    SC girls+Non SC girls + non SC (B)  (Pry)   90477   40   3619080
2.   SC girls+Non SC girls + non SC (B)  (UP / Pry)   39552   40   1582080
3.   Non SC Boys (Pry)    16983   40   679320
4.   Non SC Boys (UP Pry)   26119   40   1044760
   TOTAL    173131      6925240
   Grand Total of Text Book and Work Book
         15908060
7.5 Training at all levels 

   It is planned to give training at all levels to attain the goals and objectives of SSA.
 



BRC Training :

    It is planned to provide training to 16 BRC coordinators for the better implementation of SSA objectives.

CRC Training:

   It is proposed to conduct training  for  91 CRC coordinators by which they should share their experiences with the teachers at CRC meeting

Training for community members

   It is proposed to give two days training to 5136 community members. By this training activities like community mobilization ,monitoring schools will be improved.

EGS Volunteer Training
It is proposed to give 12 days training to new 159 EGS volunteer.

AIE volunteer Training
It is proposed to give 12 days training to 128 AIE volunteers

ECCE Volunteer Training
It is also proposed to give 20 days training to 100 ECCE Volunteer which are working in these centres.

 Teachers Training
    Traning for teachers is necessary whenever there is a change in the curriculum of textbook.Therefore it is proposed to give 20 days traning to existing teachers.

It is also proposed to give 30 days training to all In-Service computer teachers to implement the programme of computer aided learning.
   

7.6 MID DAY MEAL


Free mid day meal is being given to the primary students from Ist to 5th class in government schools but there is no separate arrangement to prepare the mid day meal. There is no store or separate kitchen Shed in the schools. Therefore separate kitchen shed should be constructed in all primary schools so that primary schools would be in a better position to prepare mid day meal. The approx. amount is Rs.65000  per kitchen shed required for 693 schools costing Rs. 450.45 lac include a closed room of ( 10*12) with 10/10 varanda and a water storage tank of 1000 litre. It is proposed to serve Mid-Day Meal upto eighth Class.










7.8 Programme for quality improvement
In order to improve the quality of education at primary  & upper primary level the following strategies are to be followed.

School grant:

Provision of school grant for 850 Primary and 337 upper primary schools.

Repair & Maintenance:

Provision of R&M grant to 850 primary & 337 upper primary schools:

7.9 MASS MEDIA :-
            Awareness among masses can be spread through Mass Media. To achieve all the targets set by Govt. of India within the prescribed limit of time under SSA. Need of time is to involve every section of society in this Abhiyan.
Following are the means for advertisement.
1.   Local City Cables.
2.   Newspapers.
3    Side holdings.
4.    Pamphlets
5.    Key chains.
6.    SSA Logo' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s on school buildings
7.    Posters
8    Wall paintings
9.   Through Workshops and Seminars.
10.   On Auto Stupeny cover.
11.    Banners
12. Stalls around shopping Malls
7.10 Remedial Coaching

 Proposal for 2007-08

With a purpose to build up the capacity and capability of students to perform well in the state exam of class V and the public exam of class VIII, this is proposed to impart Remedial Coaching to weak students of classes IV and V in all primary schools and to that of classes VII and VIII in all Upper Primary Schools under SSA. The Remedial Coaching would be provided for one month during Summer Vacation i.e., during the month of June for 3 hours daily except Sundays. Two minimum 10+2 pass candidates would be appointed by VEDCs as EVs for Remedial Coaching in Primary Schools and minimum graduation cleared candidates for Remedial Coaching in Upper Primary Schools.

Sr.no   District   No of Schools   Proposed EVs   Unit Cost   Budget requirement   Total Budget Requirement (P + UP)
      Pri   Upper Pri   Pri   Upper Pri   Pri   Upper Pri   Pri   Upper Pri   
1.   Amritsar   850   533   850   337   1000   1200   850000   404400   1254400
                              


2.11 Activity Based Learning
It is one of the important component under SSA.ABL means students will learn the fundamental concepts of math and English through playway mehtod by playing the games. Concepts learnt in this way are easier for the child to recall and quality of learning also improves. Expenditure will be incurred from Research and evolution.



CHAPTER 8 :  SPECIAL FOCUS GROUP AND GIRL EDUCATION
8.1 GIRLS EDUCATION
Progress Overview
Financial   

Total budget received in the year  2005-06 under this component was Rs.10 Lacs  and being completely utilized. Rs. 15 lac was received in 2006-07 and completely utilized.

Physical 

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is committed to bring children from all focus groups under the ambit of elementary education. Under this activity in this regard the Uniform shall be provided to the Girls study in Govt. Schools. These schools selected mostly in remote rural areas where education and enrolment of girls is a problem. Mobilization of the community was undertaken with the help of mass media aimed at target audience of poor parents living in remote rural areas. Local existing infrastructure for mass communication like the Gurdwara/Mandir network was used to disseminate information on the role of girl education in eradication of poverty and better standards of living. 
Problems

1.   Girls in rural areas have to devote more time to various domestic chores like cleansing, cooking and looking after their younger brothers and sisters. Further their education is not given as much importance as is given in urban and semi urban areas.
2.   Education of girls is commonly perceived as unnecessary. This is    especially true for girls living in rural areas or those who come from disadvantaged social groups.
3.   This perception is rooted in the fact that girls are considered competent mainly in doing household activities and thus, assigned household chores like running the house, taking care of younger siblings, milking cattle, helping in the fields, and so on.
4.   Further, investment in the education of girls is considered a waste as the girl is to be married off one day and the benefits, if any; the parent family will not enjoy accruing from her education.
5.   Parents consider it more important to teach the girl household management skills that will be needed once she is married. Formal education in a regular school that does not teach them practical skills is considered useless.
6.   Most parents do not consider it safe to send their girls to school after they attain adolescence. This is especially true for girls living in remote areas where the girl has to traverse long and lonely paths to reach school.
7.   Girls are also withdrawn from school to help during the harvesting season, during marriages or related functions, crises in the family, festivals, etc. Thus, their studies receive a setback and they are never able to catch up later.
8.   Even at home, they are not spared time to finish their homework or do extra reading, as they are assigned duties around the house by their mothers, while their brothers are left free to pursue studies.
Strategies
A proactive strategy having a multi-pronged approach will have to be followed in order to bring about an attitudinal shift among the community, the parents and the girls themselves. The strategy shall be to highlight the benefits of girl education that accrue not only to the girl and her progeny but also to the parent family, while at the same time, sensitize the community, the village elders and the teachers regarding issues in the girl education.
Easy mode of conveyance for needy girls shall be an added attraction.

Interventions Proposed For 2007-08
      1. Free Uniform to All Girls studying in Govt. Schools.
2 Widespread popular media campaign and involvement of the community in the management of VE classes will help change the existing attitudes towards education of girls or lack there-of.
 8.2 SC/ST (SCHEDULED CASTES AND TRIBES)     

 Progress Overview

Financial   

Total budget received in the year  2006-07  under this component was Rs.5 Lacs respectively and  Rs. 437000/- being disbursed.

Physical

 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is committed to bring children from all focus groups under the ambit of elementary education. Under this activity in this regard Vocational Education has been introduced in district Amritsar.
 These schools selected mostly in remote rural areas having concentration of children belonging to disadvantages communities, where education and enrolment of girls is a problem. It would also encourage parents to send their daughters to school as they would realize that they are also learning useful skills apart from studying. Mobilization of the community was undertaken with the help of mass media aimed at target audience of poor parents living in remote rural areas.   Local existing infrastructure for mass communication like the Gurdwara/Mandir network was used to disseminate information on the role of girl education in eradication of poverty and better standards of living. 


Problems

1.   SC/ST communities are generally poor and un-educated. Even earning two square meals a day is sometimes a distant dream. Children from these communities are also generally malnourished and have low levels of learning achievement, even where they are going to school. This leads to frustration and eventual drop-out.
2.   The attitudes of the community and society towards such children are also quite negative. These attitudes also travel to the classroom.
3.   Sometimes, even teachers are frustrated with such children and neglect them because they are considered hopeless. Teachers devote more time to the already bright students. This further leads to neglect and disinterest in studies, low achievement and eventual drop out.
4.   Most children from these communities are either living in slums, concentrated around brick kilns, construction sites, factories, and other such habitations. However, a large number of these children are scattered across villages throughout the length and breadth of the District
5.   In such an environment, and with lack of even basic necessities of life, the educational needs of their children are sometimes the last thing on the parents' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''mind.
6.   The situation is even more complicated for the girls belonging to backward communities, where education of girls is commonly perceived as unnecessary.
7.   This perception is rooted in the fact that girls are considered competent mainly in doing household activities and thus, assigned household chores like running the house, taking care of younger siblings, milking cattle, helping in the fields, and so on.
8.   Parents consider it more important to teach the girl household management skills that will be needed once she is married. Formal education in a regular school that does not teach them practical skills is considered useless.
9.   Most parents do not consider it safe to send their girls to school after they attain teenage years. This is especially true for girls living in remote areas where the girl has to traverse long and lonely paths to reach school.
10.   Girls are also withdrawn from school to help during the harvesting season, during marriages or related functions, crises in the family, festivals, etc. Thus, their studies receive a setback and they are never able to catch up later.
Issues
1.   In order to overcome the caste bias prevalent in society, it is important to devise innovative strategies addressing the specific problems highlighted earlier. In this regard, the funds allocated for this intervention Rs. 5 lacs  are measly and need to be increased in order to achieve the goal of UEE.
2.   Leaving aside other factors, even if only the population-wise ratio of fund allocation is considered, the funding is far less per SC/ST child living in this  district compared to a smaller district . Thus, based on the fund allocation under this intervention, SC/ST children living in a larger district will be penalized just because of their geographic location.
1.   It is therefore proposed that funds under the ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "Innovation' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    '' head are allocated on per child basis or per block basis rather than their lump sum allocation per district.

Strategies

The parents of such children belonging to SC/ST communities will have to be educated on the benefits of educating their children with special focus on the girl child.

The strategy shall be to highlight the immediate and long term benefits of education that could improve the economic and social status of the concerned communities over a period of time, giving immediate examples grounded in daily life of the poor laborers and focus groups. Simultaneously, through special modules, the teachers will have to be sensitized so that they can create a welcoming and enabling environment for the focus group children in school and also spend extra time with these children to ensure their retention in school.

For children who do not have parental support or are first time learners, remedial coaching shall be provided (under EGS). Introduction of regular vocational education classes for SC/ST children will be an added bonus. Simultaneously, incentives shall be given to the SC/ST girls and their education shall be made more interesting and useful by introducing practical subjects under vocational education.





Interventions Proposed For 2007-08     
1. Widespread popular media campaign and involvement of the community in the management of VE classes will help change the existing attitudes towards disadvantaged communities and eradicate caste bias. Involvement of the SC/ST community in the management of the school shall develop in them a sense of ownership. Existing mass communication infrastructure, like the Gurdwara/Mandir network shall also be used for this intervention.   
2. Vocational education classes beginning at the secondary level have been introduced in 100 UP schools on pilot basis, where girls learn the art of tailoring. Teaching imparted by qualified Volunteers. This scheme shall be sustained and expanded during the coming year. This intervention expected to increase enrollment, sustain student interest, and help the girl child learn some useful practical skills which could come in handy later in life. The approximate Cost on SC/ST education will be Rs.10 Lacs.


Targets to be Achieved in Annual Work Plan 2007-08
1. Vocational Education for Girls in 100 Upper Primary schools
2. Awareness Drive & Community Mobilization
3. Provision of bicycles to needy girls.





8.3 EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION (THE ECCE PROJECT)

Importance of pre-school education during the early years of a child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s life:
During the pre-primary stage, enormous changes take place in a child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s physical growth and mental development. From a state of dependence, the child becomes a curious learner. As the child, his/her nervous system matures, the child quickly adapts to the world and slowly begins to imagine and discover methods for storing away the memories of the past and present events. This period is marked by the development of language.
   
For the development of beliefs, emotional maturity and proper social orientation, the years of pre-primary education are the most impressionable and formative period of the child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s life. Prior to the integration of the child in formal education, special training is required to be given to enable them to perform simple tasks such as eating, dressing, developing, interpersonal skills, etc. In view of this, it is necessary to start a pre-primary schooling program at the pre-primary level to:

' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Create learning environment wherein children familiarize themselves with school-like environment, get varied experiences and learn to perform simple tasks.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Provide opportunities and experiences to children and allow them to flourish by bringing out their individuality, rather than take control of the child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s learning through an input-output rote learning based model.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Emphasize cooperative learning and peer group/adult child interaction through group activities, etc., for facilitating expansion of learning.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Make learning more relevant and culture specific.
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''    Build a greater sense of social values, personal hygiene, self-esteem and confidence.
In a nutshell:-
-   The rapid growth age of 0-6 years is of critical importance in a child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s life.
-   50 % of a child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s entire cognitive development takes place during these years.
-   It is a time of crucial all-round physical, cognitive, social and emotional development.
-   Habits formed during these formative years usually last a lifetime.
-   Pre-school education is vital for achieving UEE as it ensures:
o   better school participation in later years
o   higher grades
o   lower drop-out rate
o   increased school participation of the girl child by freeing her from sibling care

In view of the above, there is an urgent need to draw the children to school at an early age. Formal education in regular schools starts at the age of six years. By that time, 50% of the cognitive development of the child has already taken place. The need of the hour is to bring school readiness among children through pre-schools, much like the preparatory schools in cities/urban areas. The idea is to catch them young.

   Various gender and social assessment studies have identified the reasons for poor participation of girls in primary education. These studies show that the most universally cited deterrents to girl' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s education are sibling care, parent illiteracy, domestic chores, etc., and these automatically draw attention to Early Childhood Care and Education.
   A strong pre-school education component is a must to achieve the goal of UEE and to reduce drop out among school children. There is ample empirical evidence to suggest that poor children attending good quality pre-school programs:
o   Are better prepared for school educationally and socially.
o   Achieve greater success in school, require minimum remedial coaching, seldom have to repeat a grade, and their incidence of experiencing major behavioral problems is minimized.
o   This success later translates into their continued success through adulthood, with better grades in high school and better employment prospects later.
o   Thus, both their economic as well as social performance is greatly improved due to the initial investment in good quality pre-school education during their formative years.





Progress Overview

Physical
Under this component 57 pre school sections has been opened in District Amritsar. Early Childhood Care and Education is a vital component and the foundation on which the child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s entire life and future education is based. It is a vital strategy in the implementation of UEE as a good pre-school education program leads to better mental growth, lower drop-out rate and higher grades in later classes.

Problems
However, the component is not getting the due importance that it deserves. The importance of good pre-school education imparted by a qualified teacher solely concerned with the educational needs of the child, in the vicinity of a formal primary school cannot be over-emphasized.
Yet, pre-school education remains a forgotten component, discussed merely as an innovative strategy, rather than as part of the regular education framework, commensurate of its key position in achieving the goal of UEE. 

Given the situation today, where pre-school education is being looked after by an Anganwari worker who is already over-burdened with providing six different services under the ICDS, the situation looks quite dismal. ICDS centers have historically been incapable of achieving much in terms of providing education or any other goal assigned to them. Pumping more money into the same system is going to achieve only more of similar results.

Strategy
   The strategy is simple and straightforward. Pre-school education should be an integral part of the primary school. Three critical years of a child' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s life cannot be wasted, as is happening under the present system.
   To intervene,100 Pre School sections has been opened in District Amritsar. Quality will be the key focus in these pre-schools. Widespread campaign will be launched to spread awareness regarding benefits of the program. The scheme will be introduced on a pilot basis and could be extended to more schools, depending on its success and the funds available.
However, since there has been a lot of resistance from the Anganwari workers of the state, the state government has decided not to open any new ECCE centers for the time being. The centers already functioning will be sustained and continued, as per need.
Interventions proposed for 2007-08
   1. 43 New ECCE Centres will be open in the District.
2. Pre-school education to continue to be imparted in the 57 ECCE centres functioning in the District.
3.   In these pre-schools, play-way methods of teaching and learning shall be employed using activity based techniques.
4.   A qualified teacher and helper will look after the specific educational and developmental needs of each child.
5.   Well researched educational material and teaching techniques shall be used. A comprehensive educational kit consisting of 24 items, including puzzles, games, charts, books, blocks, clay and crayons, etc., shall be provided. The curriculum so designed, will promote :
2   vocabulary development
3   recognition of objects
4   cognitive curiosity
5   social and moral values
6   personal hygiene
7   language and communication skills
8   mental reasoning and analytical skills
9   gradual beginning of counting, alphabets, etc.
1.   The overall design of the program will be to foster a sense of creativity and confidence and develop a sense of self-esteem.
2.   Develop observation, concentration, expression and improved language skills.
3.   The play activities shall be structured to promote muscular development (both large and fine), coordination and personal hygiene.
6.   The environment of the classroom shall be made child-centric and attractive by painting the walls and ceiling in vibrant colors. Other necessary TLM will be provided as one time support at the start of the program in each school.
7.   Tat patties shall be provided as material support.
8.   A 10-day training module will be developed based on the play-way method and activity based learning model, and the training shall be provided to the pre-school teachers and helpers before the start of the program. The existing DIET infrastructure shall be used.
9.   Awareness and enrollment drive will also be launched. All efforts will be made to provide quality education to the tiny tots right at the out start.
10.   The services of the teacher and helper will be monitored by the school principal or headmaster, and essential support shall be provided, whenever needed.
Programme for ECCE

There is a need of care and attention for the early aged children. To provide care and preliminary education it is proposed to continue ECCE centers. There are 57 ECCE centers running in the district.  It is planned to provide training  to all volunteers in ECCE centers. It is propose to open 43 New ECCE  Centres in the Village.


AMRITSAR District Annual Work Plan 2007-08, for ECCE component under INNOVATIONS
S. No.   A/c. Code   Activity Description   Unit Cost   Physical   Financial (Rs. in lacs) from ECCE Head   Financial (Rs. in lacs) from Other heads   Total
(Rs. in lacs)   Remarks
1.   INNO   INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES                  
   ECCE   Early Childhood Care and Education                  Continuation of existing 57 ECCE Centers & opening 43 new ones to bring the total strength to 100. As the scheme has received excellent response from the community, it needs to be introduced in all primary schools.
      Provision of innovative, well-researched educational material, TLM, games & toys to inculcate good habits and provide school readiness skills in the child using the play way technique and learning by doing, and for provision of other required material, registers, equipment and contingencies. (Total budget of Rs. 3000/- per center).      0.030   100     0.50     2.50     3.00   Rs. 500/- per center to be used from ECCE head. Rs. 2500/- per center proposed to be used from REMS head.
      Provision of small plastic furniture, rocking chairs & educational, pictorial depictions on walls to enhance teaching learning process in ECCE.      0.020   100   0.00   2.00    2.00   To be used from school grant.
      At present the honorarium is given to teacher @ Rs. 800/- p.m. and to @ Rs. 400/- p.m. However, due to increase in honorarium of EGS Volunteers, the honorarium of ECCE Volunteers also needs to be increased as they are equally or more qualified than EGS Volunteers and work more hours. To keep their motivational level up and to retain them in service, their honorarium needs to be kept at par with that of EGS Volunteers.
Fresh proposal is for honorarium of ECCE Teacher @ Rs. 2000/- p.m. (average) and Helper @ Rs. 1000/- p.m., for 12 months = Rs. (3000/- x 12). Rs. 36,000/- per year.
Detailed proposal for revision in honorarium of teachers is based on educational qualification, as follows: Rs. 2500/- for graduates, Rs. 2000/- for +2, Rs. 1500/- for matriculates.      0.360   100    14.40   21.60   36.00   Honorarium of Rs. 800/- and Rs. 400/- for ECCE teacher & helper respectively, will be drawn from ECCE head. Balance honorarium proposed to be funded from the head of ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' '   ''  '"Quality Improvement through early intervention.' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''
State recommends an increase in the ECCE allocation for this critical intervention.
      Training of Pre-school teacher and helper @ Rs. 40/- per day for 20 days & 5 days respectively = 40 x 25 =  Rs. 1000/-.       0.010     100      0.10    0.90    1.00   Honorarium to Resource Persons @ Rs. 100/- per day, per person to be paid from ECCE Head.
{2 batches (100/- x 2 x 25)} = Rs. 10,000/-.
TA/DA etc. to be paid from Management Head.
      Renovation/ painting of room to make it child-centric & attractive and to use it as learning aid.   0.020   100   0.00   2.00   2.00   To be funded from R&M grant.
      MDM support for ECCE children.                  In convergence with MDM program.
      Total         15.00
29.00
44.00   

IED
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR DISABLED
' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "It was an old saying that disability is there in the child, but now the child is not only disable but the whole system has become disabled.' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    ''   Because there can be deficits in the development of the child but the reason for deficit in the development is not necessarily because of  disabilities alone but could also be due to social, cultural factors.  History of the world is full of examples of people with disability who have made very significant growth and social contribution.  Therefore it is necessary to change the predominantly negative perception in to a realistic broad positive perception of people with disability.

ROLE OF SSA IN IED

It becomes the fundamental obligation of the society and the statutory duty of the state to make necessary efforts for the fulfillment the basic needs of the entire population including the disabled once. To fulfill that purpose Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalize elementary education by community ownership of the school system. The thrust of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is on providing integrated and inclusive education to all children with special needs in general schools. It supports a wide range of approaches, options and strategies for education of children with special needs. This includes education through open learning system and open schools, non formal and alternative schooling, distance education and learning, special schools, wherever necessary, home based education, itinerant teacher model, remedial teaching, part time classes, community based rehabilitations (CRB) and vocational education and cooperative programmes. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity to CWSN Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will focus on the inclusion and participation of children with special needs in the educational process.



PROFILE

World
According the UN, 600 million people in the world have a significant disability.  About 10% of this population that is about 60 million are children of school going age.  The precise number of children with disability in the given country will depend to some extent on the demographic pattern of the country.  In the countries where the number of elderly people is small, about 40% population is believed to below 16 years of age.


India
India has 50 to 100 million people with disabilities.  This number includes people with Visually Impairment, Hearing Impairment, Loco motor Impairment and Mental Retardation.

State
There are 28 States in India.  Out of these 28 States, State Punjab has 20 Districts. Which have 1883 CWSN,

District Amritsar

District Amritsar has identified 1883 CWSN (Ann. CWSN (1883) Performa x) through assessment camps.  These camps are organized by SSA in Feburary 20 to 24, 2006.  It is intrinsically important to identify any delay in early childhood development, since early identification would lead to optimum use of residual potential in every child.  These CWSN are suffering with different-different disabilities like Ortho, Hearing, Visiual, Multiple disability, Learing Disability, Cerebral palsy and Mental Retardation. 


PROGRESS
During the year (2006-07) IED Component of SSA worked as under:

   Identification and Assessment camps were held in the District Amritsar at the Tehsil Level (Amritsar, Ajnala, Baba Bakala, ) in Feburary , 2006 and 1883 CWSN were identified.
   For the Hearing Impaired children, the Audiometry Camps were organized in 11 to 14 July 2006 at DRC, and 63 CWSN were identified for Hearing Aids.
   Home Based Education  was started by IED Resource Teachers.
   Parents & Community members are also guided by IERT' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s regarding the disabilities by personal meetings.
   6 BRPs has completed the RCI Foundation Course from Dr. Khosla School Jalandher & VRTC Ludhiana in the month of November 2006.
   An Educational tour for CWSN to Science City was conducted in Dec, 2006.
   A special workshop on Portage & Early Intervention was attended by 2 DRPs and 2 BRPs at Chandigarh in the month of 27 Nov. to 1st Dec. 2006
   Cultural Activity Program of CWSN was held on the Sports Day .
   In Jan. 2007 Measurement & Fitment Camps for Ortho Impaired Children were organized at Tehsile Level .
   For RBC 51 CWSN are identified and got the approval from the Parents.
   All the schools are made disabled friendly.  Construction of ramps for classrooms is completed in each school.

   IEP (Individual Education Plan) for each CWSN is completed.
PROPOSAL FOR YEAR 2007-08
   Distribution Camp to distribute Hearing Aid for already identified  CWSN will be organized.
   Follow-up camps to be for assessment of all CWSN, review of their progress and for counseling them as per need.
   Reform Home Based Education.
   In Model Block, The 7 Cluster Resource Persons will be appointed at Cluster Level to guide CWSN, their Parents & Community mobilization. 
   RBC (Residential Bridge Course) for  Hearing & Speech Impaired CWSN will be Started Soon.
   Construction of Ramps for the Toilets will be completed in each school by the end of Year.
   Toilet Modification (Either western or Indian Seat with additional Hand Rails) will be completed in each school.
   Co-curricular competition of CWSN (Debate, Hand Writing, and Painting) will be organized in the month of Nov. 2007.
   Cultural Program of CWSN will be organized in the month of Dec. 2007.
   Annual Sports Meet for CWSN will be organized in the month of Dec. 2007.   
   Identification & Assessment Camps will be organized for Visually Impaired CWSN.
   Modification of IED Resource Rooms at BRC Level.
   Training of Regular Teachers & VEDC Members through Workshops, Seminars regarding the Problems & Needs of CWSN in the trainings held by DIET & GISTC under Teacher Training program under SSA by the IERTs from time to time. 
   Teachers are proposed to be Trained in the 3 Months RCI Foundation Courses & Further motivated Teachers willing to undergo one Year Training in special B.Ed. will be got enrolled.




Costing of Inclusive Education for the Disabled (2007-08)
               
Sr. No.   Activity Description   Unit Cost (Rs. in Lacs)   Physical   Financial (Rs. in Lacs)   Remarks
1   Assessment of all children with special needs   -   2584   171680   
2   Distribution & Fitment of Aids and Appliances   -   -   -   -
3   Follow up visits   5000   17   85000   -
4   Community Mobilization -cum- Awareness Drive   5000   17   85000   -
5   Salary of Special Educators appointed @ 1 per block, as per recommendation of MHRD.  These teachers are working in itinerant mode.  They travel from village to village and school to school, guide teachers on pedagogical issues for special children, modification of the classroom/ seating arrangement to accommodate special children, develop IEPs, provide remedial coaching in their respective Resource Rooms, mobilize to community and educate/ motivate the parents.  Also undertake surveys and try to ensure barrier-free access.   8200   17   1672800   
               
               
               
6   Strengthening of Basic Resource Rooms   20000   1   20000   
7   Setting up of Advanced Resource Rooms   77000   1   77000   
8   Sports meets/ Cultural events/ Picnic/ Trips   30000   1   30000   
9   State & District level workshop on IED   20000   1   20000   
10   Special Vocational Education & Training   50000   1   50000   
11   Focused efforts in catchments area of each district   50000   1   50000   
12   Training of govt. teacher/ IED Coordinators in RCI 3-month Foundation Course/ Special B.Ed.    4700   10   47000   
13   Training to parents/ home based education (HBE) to severe cases and honorarium to Volunteers   6000   17   102000   
14   Corrective surgery for CWSN   -   -   -   
15   Provision of recommended aids & appliances   -   -   -   
16   2-day sensitization training of all teachers on IE   -   -   -   
17   3-day training of Head of School   -   -   -   
18   Sensitization training of VEC/ Panchayat/ Community members towards IE   -   -   -   
19   Barrier-free access/ Construction of ramps with handrails/ toilet modifications   -   -   -   
20   Media Campaign   20000   1   20000   
21   Development of Modules/ Posters/ useful literature & other IEC material   20000   1   20000   
22   Infrastructure development/ creation of resources/ facilities for R & D/ long-term training in special Education     20000   1   20000   
23   Innovative Pilot projects/ Assessment of LD            
28   Supervision of RBCs/ funding of Mother NGOs            
    Total            
               






Residential Bridge Course (RBC)
Residential Bridge course is started in district it is proposed Rs. 10 lac as a recurring expenditure is required in the financial year 2007-08.












Chapter 9 : Convergence, Coordination and Linkages

T
he SSA is conceived as an ' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  ' ' ' ''    ''  '  "umbrella program' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   ''  '  ' '    '' which subsumes all on-going projects, programs and schemes aimed at developing basic education. A convergent approach will, it is expected, help overcome the problems of co-ordination between intra-sectoral programs initiatives and at the same time will also facilitates effective planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programs. Convergent between education and development programs, aimed at poverty alleviation, employment generation, food and work, promotion of household industry and enhancing the quality of life (health, family welfare, availability of drinking water, rural housing, etc.) is being effected. These programs increase the capacity of household to seek and support education of children.

This calls for convergent with other departments such as Heath, Red Cross, Social security Welfare, (Women and Child), Statistical Department, Panchayti Raj Rural Development etc. To achieve the target of SSA through convergence district education development committee has been made consisting representatives of different departments, NGOs, specialists, social workers,etc.

   Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan office Amritsar establishes networking with various other departments. Red Cross Society is also in the networking.   Aaganwari centers working at village level prepares (0-6) children for the schooling. At village level Aganwari centers, primary schools and village education development committee jointly prepare children for the primary classes.
   Statistical department provides statistics needed by the S.S.A. office Amritsar as these statistics are helpful in making the planning of the year 2005-06. Statistical department provides data regarding number of villages, number of Panchyats, Population (Union and Rural) S.T/S.C. Population households, projected population, sex ratio, area, literacy, literacy rate, and density of population etc.
   Panchayati Raj department and civil works of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Amritsar linked with each other. As Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Amritsar seeks the guidance of engineers of this department regarding the civil works. These engineers guide for the estimation quality and quantity of the civil works.
   Rural Development department helps a lot for the proper implementation of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan project. All the B.D.P.O' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s, J.E' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s and other official of this department are helpful in the civil works of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Amritsar and development of the villages related with the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Amritsar.
   Department of water supply and sanitation constructs Toilet Blocks etc. at its own level and also helps Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Amritsar by providing technical information regarding the construction of Toilet Blocks for the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Amritsar.

10.1  CONSTRUCTION OF V.E.D.C.
TABLE No 10.1 (Construction of V.E.D.C)
Headmaster (Due to designation)   Secretary
Two Members of Panchayat
(one female members is necessary)   Member
Two P.T.A Members
(one female member is necessary)   Member
Ex-Servicemen   Member
A Retired Teacher(from Punjab Education Department)   Member
Donator or N.R.I.   Member
Total members including secretary   Eight
 10.2 THE CONSTRUCTION OF BLOCK EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (BEDC)

   The village Educational Development Committee is a means to speed up the development of elementary education. It is like constituting a local management committee for every school, which takes active part in the development works of the social and implements the same. It represents both, the local bodies and general public.
The Construction of Block Educational Development Committee (BEDC)
The following are the members of B.E.D.C.

TABLE No. 10.2 (Construction of B.E.D.C)
S.D.M.   Chairman
Block Elementary Education Officer     Member Secretary
Two N.G.Os   Member
B.D.P.O.   Member
C.D.P.O.   Member
Two Educationists    Member
Five C.H.T.s   Member








10.3 THE CONSTRUCTION OF DISTRICT EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (DEDC)

The following are the members of D.E.D.C.
TABLE NO.10.3 (Construction of D.E.D.C)
Deputy Commissioner  Amritsar   Chairman
Additional Deputy Commissioner (D) Amritsar    Vice Chairman
District Education Office (S) Amritsar    Member
Principal D.I.E.T. Verka, Amritsar    Member
Principal Govt. In-service Training Centre   Member
Secretary Zila Parishad Amritsar    Member
Seven B.E.E.O' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s    Member
District Education Officer (E.E.) Amritsar    Member Security
Three N.G.O' '   '  '' '    '' ' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    ''' '   '' ' ' ''    ''  ' ' '    '' s            Member

Deputy Commissioner Amritsar the Chairman of the District Education Development Committee, keenly, watches the performance of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan project Amritsar. For this office of the Deputy Commissioner, Amritsar has conducted many meetings of the D.E.D.C.


 

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